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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     

Commission File Number 001-38320

 

Kaleyra, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

82-3027430

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

17 State Street, New York City, NY

10004

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +1 917 508 9185

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class:

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered:

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

KLR

 

New York Stock Exchange

Warrants to receive one share of Common Stock

 

KLR WS

 

NYSE American LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on The NYSE Stock Market on June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $348,238,147.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 1, 2022 was 42,361,833.

 

 

 


 

Kaleyra, Inc.

Annual Report on Form 10-K

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

2

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

13

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

50

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

50

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

50

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

52

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

53

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

53

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

54

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

55

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

72

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

73

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

121

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

121

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

122

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

122

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

123

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

123

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

130

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

137

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

139

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

141

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

142

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

142

 

 

i


 

CERTAIN TERMS

References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report”) to “we,” “us,” “our” “Kaleyra” or the “Company” refer to Kaleyra, Inc. References to our “management” or our “management team” refer to our executive officers and directors. The following discussion and analysis of the Company’s financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto contained elsewhere in this Annual Report. Certain information contained in the discussion and analysis set forth below includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended that are not historical facts, and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expected and projected. All statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this Annual Report including, without limitation, statements in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” regarding the Company’s financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. Words such as “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “seek” and variations and similar words and expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements relate to future events or future performance, but reflect management’s current beliefs, based on information currently available. A number of factors could cause actual events, performance or results to differ materially from the events, performance and results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Actual results and stockholders’ value will be affected by a variety of risks and factors, including, without limitation, international, national and local economic conditions, merger, acquisition and business combination risks, financing risks, geo-political risks, acts of terror or war, cyber security risks and those risk factors described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” Many of the risks and factors that will determine these results and stockholders’ value are beyond the Company’s ability to control or predict. Except as expressly required by applicable securities law, the Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

All such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report. The Company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in the Company’s expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on the Company’s behalf are qualified in their entirety by this Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

1


PART I

Item 1. Business.

Introduction

We are a Delaware corporation formerly known as GigCapital, Inc., and as a result of our business combination with Kaleyra S.p.A. on November 25, 2019, we changed our name to Kaleyra, Inc. (which we refer to throughout this Annual Report as our “Business Combination”).

Business Overview

Our Vision

Kaleyra provides mobile communication services to financial institutions, e-commerce players, over-the-top media providers (“OTTs”), software companies, logistic enablers, healthcare providers, retailers, and other large organizations worldwide. Through its proprietary cloud communications platforms (collectively as the “Platforms”), Kaleyra manages multi-channel integrated communication services on a global scale, consisting of messaging, rich messaging and instant messaging (including WhatsApp®), video, push notifications, e-mail, programmable voice services, Interactive Voice Response (“IVR”) configurations, and chatbots. The increasing demand for cloud communications is driven by the growing, and often mandated, need for enterprises to undertake a digital transformation that includes omnichannel, mobile-first and interactive customer communications. Mobile network operators typically are the gateway to reach end-user consumers’ mobile devices. Kaleyra enables its customers and business partners to connect enterprise software and applications to mobile network operators by providing carefully documented Application Programming Interfaces (“APIs”). In addition, Kaleyra also offers an extensive set of no-coding cloud-based visual interfaces to programme communications to the customers across multiple channels. Kaleyra’s Platforms couples the possibility of sending communications to end-user customers to a “Software as a Service” or SaaS business model, creating what is generally referred to as a “Communications Platform as a Service”, or simply CPaaS.

Kaleyra’s vision is to be the CPaaS provider which best aligns with its customers’ and business partners’ communication requirements, or the most trusted provider in the world. This requires a combination of security, compliance and integration capabilities that protects the integrity and privacy of Kaleyra’s customers’ transactions and includes other key features such as ease of provisioning, reliable network connectivity, high availability for scaling, redundancy, embedded regulatory compliance, configurable monitoring and reporting. Kaleyra believes the percentage of CPaaS customers that will require security, compliance and integration will represent an increasingly larger portion of the market, particularly with the expected exponential growth of transactional-by-nature cloud communications applications, better enabling Kaleyra to set itself apart from its competition.

Kaleyra Today

Kaleyra is a result of the expansion of the former Ubiquity, which was founded in Milan, Italy in 1999. Ubiquity secured a leading market position in mobile messaging on behalf of the Italian financial services industry and then sought to expand its products and geographic offerings. Ubiquity acquired Solutions Infini of Bangalore, India in 2017 and Buc Mobile of Vienna, Virginia in 2018. It was rebranded as Kaleyra S.p.A. in February 2018. Following the integration of the acquired entities, the combined company is collectively engaged in the operation of the Platforms on behalf of Kaleyra’s customers.

On February 22, 2019, the Company (f/k/a GigCapital, Inc.) entered into a stock purchase agreement (the “Stock Purchase Agreement”) by and among the Company, Kaleyra S.p.A., Shareholder Representative Services LLC, as representative for the holders of the ordinary shares of Kaleyra S.p.A. immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, and all of the stockholders of all of the Kaleyra S.p.A. stock (collectively, such Kaleyra S.p.A. stockholders, the “Sellers”), for the purpose of the Company acquiring all of the shares of Kaleyra S.p.A.. GigCapital Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on October 9, 2017 for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses.

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As a result of the Business Combination, which closed on November 25, 2019, the Company (headquartered in Milan, Italy) became a multi-channel integrated communication services provider on a global scale. Kaleyra operated at the time of the closing of the Business Combination in the Communications Platform as a Service (“CPaaS”) market with operations primarily in Italy, India, Dubai and the United States. In connection with the closing, the Company changed its name from GigCapital, Inc. to Kaleyra, Inc.

On July 29, 2020, Kaleyra registered a German branch of Kaleyra S.p.A. with the German Chamber Tax Authority of Commerce. Kaleyra established its branch in Germany, by far the most important country in Europe to Kaleyra after Italy, to expand Kaleyra’s footprint in Central Europe and the Nordic countries and allow it to leverage Kaleyra’s trusted business solutions for customers in additional jurisdictions.

Kaleyra’s subsidiary, Campaign Registry Inc., a systems initiative to reduce spam by collecting robotically driven campaign information and processing and sharing that information with mobile operators and the messaging ecosystem, began its soft launch during the second quarter of the fiscal year 2020, ending up with its first revenue contracts in the second half of that year.

On February 18, 2021, Kaleyra entered into an agreement and plan of merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Vivial, Inc. (“Vivial”) for the acquisition of the business known as mGage (“mGage”), a leading global mobile messaging provider in the United States (the transaction contemplated by the Merger Agreement, the “Merger”).

On June 1, 2021, Kaleyra completed its acquisition of mGage for a total purchase price of $218.0 million. The Merger consideration consisted of both cash consideration and common stock consideration. On August 30, 2021, the Company prepared and delivered to the Stockholder Representative a written statement (the “Post-Closing Statement”) setting forth the calculation of closing cash and closing net working capital which ultimately resulted in the final Merger consideration to be equal to $217.0 million pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement. The cash consideration amounted to $199.2 million of which $198.6 million was paid on June 1, 2021 and the remaining amount was settled during the period ended September 30, 2021, including a working capital adjustment of $997,000. The common stock consideration was paid with the issuance to Vivial’s former equity holders of a total of 1,600,000 shares of Kaleyra common stock at the $11.77 per share closing price of Kaleyra common stock on the date of issuance, equal to $18.8 million. In support of the consummation of the Merger, on February 18, 2021, Kaleyra entered into subscription agreements (the “PIPE Subscription Agreements”), with certain institutional investors (the “PIPE Investors”), pursuant to which, among other things, Kaleyra agreed to issue and sell, in private placements to close immediately prior to the closing of the Merger, an aggregate of 8,400,000 shares of Kaleyra common stock to the PIPE Investors at $12.50 per share. Kaleyra also entered into convertible note subscription agreements (the “Convertible Note Subscription Agreements”) with certain institutional investors (the “Convertible Note Investors”), pursuant to which Kaleyra agreed to issue and sell, in private placements to close immediately prior to the closing of the Merger, $200 million aggregate principal amount of unsecured convertible notes (the “Merger Convertible Notes”).

On July 1, 2021, Kaleyra completed a company reorganization of the acquired business of mGage through the initial dissolution of the Delaware single member LLCs of Vivial Holdings, LLC, Vivial Networks, LLC, and the following merger of mGage, LLC into the surviving holding company, Vivial Inc., which subsequently changed its name into Kaleyra US Inc., as a result of the reorganization. As a result of the merger, Kaleyra US Inc. became the holding company of the following entities: one hundred percent (100%) direct ownership of mGage Europe Ltd. (UK) and one hundred percent (100%) direct ownership of mGage SA de SV (Mexico).

On July 8, 2021, Kaleyra completed the acquisition of Bandyer Srl (“Bandyer”) for cash consideration of $15.4 million. Bandyer offers cloud-based audio/video communications services via Web Real Time Communication (“WebRTC”) technology to financial institutions, retail companies, utilities, industries, insurance companies, human resources, and digital healthcare organizations. Bandyer provides customers with programmable audio/video APIs and Software Development Kits (“SDKs”) based on WebRTC technology for a variety of use cases, including Augmented Reality (“AR”) applications for smart glasses.

Effective August 31, 2021, the common stock of the Company ceased trading on the NYSE American stock exchange and commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the ticker symbol “KLR.” Kaleyra’s warrants continue to trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “KLR WS”.

On October 11, 2021, Kaleyra Africa Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Kaleyra Inc., was incorporated under the law of South Africa with the registered office in Waterfall City, Gauteng. This newly established subsidiary is

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part of Kaleyra's broader strategic plan of expanding into emerging markets whereby South Africa will serve as Kaleyra's hub to enter the entire African market.

On November 15, 2021, pursuant to the provisions of the Merger Agreement, Kaleyra Dominicana, S.R.L., ninety-nine percent (99%) direct ownership of Kaleyra US Inc. and one percent (1%) direct ownership of Kaleyra Inc., was incorporated under the laws of the Dominican Republic with the registered office in Santo Domingo. This newly established subsidiary is aimed to provide the Kaleyra group with back-office technology support and engage in product development and innovation.

Kaleyra has more than 3,800 customers and business partners worldwide across industry verticals such as financial institutions, e-commerce players, OTTs, software companies, logistic enablers, healthcare providers, retailers, and other large organizations worldwide, with no single customer representing more than 10% of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021. Kaleyra’s customers are located in regions throughout the world including Europe, Asia Pacific, North and South America. Kaleyra’s revenue by country for the year ended December 31, 2021 is as follows: Italy (28.9%), India (26.6%), U.S. (21.4%) and South America (7.7%). The remainder of the revenue is primarily generated in Europe and Asia in countries other than Italy and India (15.4%).

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, 71% of revenues came from customers of Kaleyra which have been on the Platforms for at least one year. Although Kaleyra continues to expand by introducing new customers to the Platforms, the breadth and stability of its existing customers provide it with a solid base of revenue upon which it can continue to innovate and make investments to strengthen its product portfolio, expand its global presence, and in particular into the Americas markets following the recent acquisition of mGage, recruit world-class talent and target accretive acquisitions as well as to capitalize on its growing market penetration opportunities and value creation.

Customers

Kaleyra’s customers are enterprises which use digital mobile communications in the conduct of their business. Kaleyra provides multiple levels of global customer support 24x7, SLAs and network reliability to meet the expectations and requirements of its customers. Customers and business partners which use the Platforms value the Platforms’ network reliability, and Kaleyra’s responsive customer support, competitive pricing, and collaborative approach. In particular, Kaleyra has been listed by Gartner (Gartner, Market Guide for Communications Platform as a Service, Worldwide, Daniel O’Connell, Lisa Under-Farboud, October 2021) as a co-creator, in other words, a CPaaS focused on a consultative business model that charges customers charge through a combination of CPaaS usage, platform fee and professional service fees. Also, Kaleyra was given the Gold award for “CPaaS Provider of the Year” by Juniper Research in February 2022.

Kaleyra services a broad base of customers and business partners throughout the world operating in diverse sectors and regions. Kaleyra’s key customers are large Business to Consumer (“B2C”) and Business to Business to Consumer (“B2B2C”) enterprises which use digital and mobile communications in the conduct of their business. Kaleyra has a concentration of business within the financial services industry that serves its major European banking end-user customers. With each relationship, Kaleyra is the link between the financial institutions and their end-user customers.

For example, banks and financial institutions deploy Kaleyra’s services that include omnichannel mobile-first password reset, account access, two-factor authentications (“2FA”), transaction notifications, anti-fraud alerts, among other services, via a cloud implementation that meets their strict requirements for security and compliance. Kaleyra’s Platforms have facilitated compliant communications for its existing financial institution customer base in Europe. European Central Bank (“ECB”) regulations have begun to mandate additional customer protection regulations, such as those requiring strong customer authentications for all payment transactions over 30 euros, facilitating the digital transformation of both traditional banks and new entrants. In the financial sector, security and compliance are generally top of mind and the sales process relies on a dedicated local sales team focused on strong integration capabilities with the full suite of services needed to satisfy customer requirements.

Other enterprise customers of Kaleyra use Kaleyra’s cloud communications services as packaged offerings that are easy to configure and manage around key end-user customer touchpoints. Although these enterprise customers require a lesser level of system integration than financial institution customers do, they still demand a sufficiently flexible system such as that which a cloud solution can provide to facilitate rapid communications system modification to accommodate changes in end-user customer behaviors. Furthermore, there are other enterprise customers for which connectivity to their end-user customers is their primary requirement, and these

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customers are using the Platforms to gain access to mobile network operators worldwide. This additional volume, which is expected to continue to grow as the transformation from e-mail-based communications to messaging-based communications is being enhanced, allows Kaleyra to leverage relationships to sell and resell network connectivity on a more cost-effective basis.

In 2021 and 2020, there was no customer that individually accounted for more than 10% of Kaleyra’s consolidated total revenues.

Seasonality

Historically, Kaleyra has experienced clear seasonality in its revenue generation, with slower traction in the first calendar quarter, and increasing revenues as the year progresses toward fourth calendar quarter, during which the Company usually registers the highest revenues in messaging and notification services. This patterned revenue generation behavior occurs due to Kaleyra’s customers sending more messages to their end-user customers who are engaged in consumer transactions at the end of the calendar year, resulting in the increase in notifications of electronic payments, credit card transactions and e-commerce.

The Market for Kaleyra’s Products

The CPaaS market is evolving and is expanding in several directions as enterprise adoption of cloud-based communications occurs. The need for enterprises to provide enhanced omnichannel end-user customer experiences is driving adoption by enterprises of embedded, real-time interactive communications for enhanced end-user customer-interfacing interactions. CPaaS market is expected to reach $25.9 billion in 2025 from $7.2 billion in 20201. The size of the global Application to Person (“A2P”) messaging market will grow from $61B in 2019 to $78B in 20222. The volume of chatbot usage is expected to grow by 84% globally (2018 – 2023). In the U.S., access to chatbots will grow year over year by 160%, in India by 342%, in Western Europe 170%3. Kaleyra’s products and services available through the Platforms address all the above-mentioned markets.

Kaleyra’s Key Products

The Platforms

Kaleyra operates its core technology, the Platforms, in the public cloud and as private clouds, and in hybrid situations. The Platforms have a high-volume infrastructure that has been designed to easily scale and support large volumes of data. The Platforms consist of two separate types of interfaces; one for connectivity to mobile network operators and the other, a set of APIs that provide convenient and user-friendly tools that enable Kaleyra’s customers to engage in communications with their end-user customers. The Platforms’ underlying software code base contains communication protocols that allow connectivity with mobile network operators around the globe.

In addition, the Platforms’ APIs, which sit on top of the underlying connectivity stack, enable the creation of specific applications (including messaging or voice-over-IP calls) or workflows (e.g. 2FA or password resets). These applications can be designed by Kaleyra, Kaleyra’s customers’ information technologies personnel, business users, and/or third-party developers. The open Platforms’ architecture enables Kaleyra’s customers and business partners to accomplish all of their communication needs from one simple interface that connects into a broad range of their systems. The relationship with Kaleyra’s customers is strengthened by providing its customers with a broad and flexible platform. Retention of Kaleyra’s customers is also enhanced as a result of the switching costs that Kaleyra’s customers would incur to transition to alternate platforms.

 

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Source: Juniper Research, CPaaS-2020-2025-Deep-Dive-Data-and-Forecasting.

2 

Source: Statista estimates, Credence Research (2020).

3 

Source: Juniper Research (July 2020)

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Communications Services

The following graphic summarizes the capabilities of Kaleyra’s suite of communications services:

 

 

This suite of services is further described below. During the year ended December 31, 2021, Kaleyra processed nearly 44 billion billable SMS messages and 6 billion voice calls on behalf of Kaleyra’s customers.

Channels Messaging, RBM/RCS, Instant Messaging

The Platforms’ APIs include software and infrastructure that process and manage SMS, Multimedia Messaging Service (“MMS”) and Rich Communications Service (“RCS”) through Google’s technology called Rich Business Messaging (“RBM”), with network connectivity to mobile network operators around the world. The Platforms are currently designed to process five thousand messages per second, with the capability to increase the throughput with additional server power and speed. The Platforms support 87 languages and are capable of stitching together concatenated messages of up to 4,000 characters. The Platforms are also designed to manage automated opt-in and opt-out procedures per mobile network operator requirements and best practices.

Kaleyra’s offering includes instant messaging such as WhatsApp® for Business by Meta, offering its customers the possibility to interact with their end-users for customer care and transactional communications. Communications can be handled by human agents, using Kaleyra’s conversational interface, or by automated AI-powered chatbots using NLP/NLU and integrating with the third-party systems in use by the customers.

Channels - Voice

The Platforms’ APIs include software and infrastructure that process and manage voice calls, including IVR and conferencing bridge capabilities. The Platforms offer features such as call masking, visual configurations of call routing, and click to call. Kaleyra also partners with Google for the distribution of their product named Verified Calls (“vCalls”), allowing brands to get their calling numbers verified for increased answer rates and reliability.

Channels - WebRTC

Kaleyra offers audio and video calling service to customers in multiple sectors, for use cases such as customer service, remote wealth management, telemedicine, remote field assistance, virtual meetings.

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Channels - Email and push notifications

The offering of channels by Kaleyra is completed by e-mail and push notification, which provide inexpensive and commonly used means of communications with customers, oftenwise chosen by brands as an alternative to or fallback from other channels.

Tools

Kaleyra distinguishes itself in the market by providing a complete set of visual tools for non-coders, that make it possible for business users to programme communications across multiple channels without any developers’ help. Users can setup campaigns, configure virtual phone numbers, perform lookups on mobile numbers, and create communications templates, by using Kaleyra’s tools.

Solutions

Kaleyra works as a Co-Creator (Gartner, 2021) alongside the customers’ marketing, business and Customer Experience (“CX”) experts, and their developers, to co-design and invent solutions dedicated to specific industries and business problems. Along with this, Kaleyra also offers for all its products an extensive set of integrations to the most widely used CRM and marketing automation systems. Those integrations, sometimes available on request and oftenwise published on third-party marketplaces, enable a wider series of use cases for brands.

Operations

Kaleyra generates revenue primarily from usage-based fees earned from the sale of communications services utilizing the Platforms. These services are offered through access to the Platforms to large enterprises, as well as small and medium-sized customers. Revenue can be billed in advance or in arrears depending on the term of the agreement; for the majority of customers, revenue is invoiced on a monthly basis in arrears.

Kaleyra’s CPaaS contracts do not provide customers and business partners with the right to take possession of the software supporting the applications.

As a part of the arrangement with its customers, Kaleyra also offers customer advanced support services, to guarantee the continuity and promptly delivery of the services. Revenue for these services is recognized ratably over the term of the service period.

Kaleyra utilizes a cloud infrastructure and its Platforms to deliver its communication services. The services are also provided using a private cloud as required by the customers and business partners. The cost of the Platforms and communication services purchased from mobile network operators is considered to be a cost of revenue.

Products in Development

Kaleyra has several new communications channels in its organic development pipeline, including new tools and solutions. Kaleyra has a growing team of software developers in the USA, in Bangalore, India and Milan, Italy engaged in research and development of additional product features based on customer feedback and market research. Kaleyra continues to evaluate possible acquisitions that can enhance its product portfolio.

Research and Development

As of December 31, 2021, 299 employees serve in Kaleyra’s research and development and engineering departments representing about 53% of its workforce, focused on maintaining and enhancing the Platforms and the communications service offerings, as well as developing new communications services and engaging with Kaleyra’s customers in this development.

Sales and Marketing

Kaleyra has multiple methods for engaging with its customers, depending upon the specific service offerings that a customer uses on the Platforms. 17% of Kaleyra’s employee base are dedicated to sales of communications services to Kaleyra’s customers or business partners. The go-to-market strategy utilizes a mixture of direct sales,

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self-service purchases and channel development, such as engaging third-party developers and system integrators that develop communications solutions for multiple customers. Kaleyra also actively participates in trade shows, industry and academic meetings on a global basis for lead generation and building of brand awareness.

Competitive Strengths

Over Kaleyra’s 20-year history, Kaleyra has developed a powerful CPaaS solution that it believes represents a unique, high growth opportunity in the CPaaS market. The Platforms are accessible everywhere in the world, have a high-volume infrastructure that has been designed to be easily scalable, and allow for communications services that have been designed having security, compliance and integration capabilities that can meet the needs of Kaleyra’s customers and their customers and regulators. Furthermore, Kaleyra continues to develop organically and strategically new communications services to meet the evolving needs of its customers and business partners. In addition, Kaleyra has identified the following competitive strengths:

Experienced Management Team

Kaleyra has a proven management team with many decades of combined international experience at industry-relevant companies.

Existing Customers and Relationships

Kaleyra believes its deep customer relationships provide it with the opportunity to expand deployment of the Platforms and the opportunity to quickly deploy new communications service offerings.

Growth Strategy

Kaleyra’s organic growth focuses on four core areas:

 

Exploiting cross-sale opportunities among Kaleyra’s acquisitions in this area, Kaleyra focuses on growing existing product teams, accelerating joint product management and growing key technology integrations with industry-leading independent software vendors;

 

Product evolution — in this area, Kaleyra works to enhance and expand features such as RCS and video applications; and

 

Geographic expansion — in this area, Kaleyra focuses on entering new markets such as Southeast Asia and Latin America.

 

Being part of larger technology ecosystems such as the marketplaces provided by the most well-known CRM and marketing automation platforms; and partnering with primary system integrators to be able to deliver full-fledged services to customers.

Furthermore, as shown with the acquisitions of mGage and Bandyer, mergers and acquisitions remain a key component of Kaleyra’s growth strategy. As it has in the past with its acquisitions of Solutions Infini and Buc Mobile, Kaleyra has continuously explored the global market with the intent of evaluating and acquiring additional companies that are adding significant value from technology and product perspectives, as well as accretive in terms of revenue, net income and capitalization. Kaleyra intends to execute acquisitions in the least dilutive and most cost-effective manner, using cash from its balance sheet or other sources, equity or a combination of both.

Competition

The CPaaS market is highly competitive and characterized by continuous technological change. The principal competitive factors in this market include completeness of offering, credibility with developers and business users, global reach, ease of integration, product features, platform scalability, brand reputation and awareness, customer support, and the cost of deployment of product offerings. Kaleyra believes that it competes favorably within each of these categories.

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Kaleyra competes with several vendors across its various product lines, including:

 

Legacy on-premises vendors, such as Avaya Holdings Corp., Cisco Systems, Inc., (through its acquisition of IMIMobile) and SAP SE;

 

Direct competitors, such as CLX Communications AB (d/b/a Sinch), Infobip ltd, Twilio Inc., and Vonage Holdings Corp. (as of November 22, 2021, Ericsson (NASDAQ:ERIC) entered into an agreement to acquire Vonage (NASDAQ: VG));

 

Smaller software companies that compete with certain portions of Kaleyra’s communications services offerings; and

 

SaaS companies that offer prepackaged applications for a narrow set of use cases.

Some competitors have greater financial, technical and other resources, greater name and brand recognition, larger sales and marketing efforts and larger portfolios of intellectual property. As a result, certain competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or changing technologies, opportunities, standards or customer needs and requests. With the introduction of new products and services and new market entrants, Kaleyra expects competition to intensify in the future. Furthermore, as Kaleyra continues to expand the scope of its Platforms, it may face additional competition. Kaleyra is also addressing enterprises that have developed over the years “in-house” products for which Kaleyra can offer a more cost-effective, robust and richer set of products to enhance the total cost of ownership and return on investment for such customers.

Employees

As of December 31, 2021, Kaleyra has 564 employees, of which 299 were in research and development, 97 were in sales, marketing and business development and 168 were in general and administrative. None of Kaleyra’s employees is currently covered under any collective bargaining agreements. Relations with Kaleyra’s employees are considered good and a material work stoppage has never been experienced.

Facilities

Kaleyra leases 18 properties, with its headquarters in Milan, Italy. Kaleyra maintains a global footprint with additional leased facilities located in Bengaluru, India; Chennai, India; Delhi, India; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Kochi, India; Kolkata, India; London, United Kingdom; Los Angeles, California; Mexico City, Mexico; Mumbai, India; Munich, Germany; New York, New York and Vienna, Virginia. Kaleyra believes that its current facilities are adequate to meet its ongoing needs and that, if it requires adjusted or additional space, it will be able to obtain additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms, or further consolidate facilities. Going forward, Kaleyra will continue to assess its facilities requirements and make appropriate adjustments as needed and dictated by the business.

Kaleyra operates 32 data centers, including cloud platforms operated by Amazon Web Services, and Kaleyra maintains private clouds on behalf of its customers. The Kaleyra private cloud devices are custom-built hardware running the Kaleyra’s Platforms and, thus, can be deployed virtually anywhere. Kaleyra currently runs these private cloud devices out of its headquarters in Milan, Italy.

Intellectual Property

Kaleyra relies on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws in the U. S. and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements and other contractual protections, to protect Kaleyra’s proprietary technology. In addition, Kaleyra protects intellectual property rights by implementing a policy that requires its employees and independent contractors involved in the development of intellectual property on its behalf to enter into agreements acknowledging that all works or other intellectual property generated or conceived by them on its

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behalf are Kaleyra’s property, and assigning to Kaleyra any rights, including intellectual property rights, that they may claim or otherwise have in those works or property, to the extent allowable under applicable law.

 

Kaleyra, as of December 31, 2021, has been issued 2 patents in the U.S.

 

Kaleyra’s trademark and certain variations thereof are registered or are the subject of pending trademark applications in the U.S. In addition to the Kaleyra trademark, Kaleyra has 18 additional trademark registrations or pending registrations in three different classes with the following authorities/countries: EU, India, South Africa, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, and the International Bureau (WIPO) China, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Singapore.

 

Kaleyra owns an Internet domain registration for kaleyra.com and certain other domains.

 

Kaleyra generally controls access and the use of its proprietary software and other confidential information through internal and external controls including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers and partners. Unauthorized parties may, nonetheless, still copy or otherwise obtain and use Kaleyra’s software and technology despite Kaleyra’s efforts to protect its trade secrets and proprietary rights through intellectual property rights, licenses and confidentiality agreements.

Regulatory

Kaleyra is subject to a number of U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations that involve matters central to its business. These laws and regulations may involve privacy, data protection, intellectual property, competition, consumer protection, export taxation, general telecommunications laws or other subjects. Many of the laws and regulations to which Kaleyra is subject are still evolving and being tested in courts and could be interpreted in ways that could harm its business. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations often are uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which Kaleyra operates. Because global laws and regulations have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that it or its communications services or the Platforms may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such applicable law or regulation.

In addition, as Kaleyra expands internationally, it will be subject to laws and regulations in the countries in which it offers services. Many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the EU member states, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of Personally Identifiable Information (“PII”) obtained from individuals located in the EU or by businesses operating within their jurisdiction, which are often more restrictive than those in the U.S. Laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of PII that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, telephone numbers, message addresses and, in some jurisdictions, IP addresses and other online identifiers.

For example, in April 2016 the EU adopted General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which took full effect on May 25, 2018. GDPR enhances data protection obligations for businesses and requires service providers (data processors) processing personal data on behalf of customers to cooperate with European data protection authorities, implement security measures and keep records of personal data processing activities. Noncompliance with the GDPR can trigger fines equal to or greater of €20 million or 4% of global annual revenues. Given the breadth and depth of changes in data protection obligations, preparing to meet the requirements of GDPR has required significant time and resources, including a review of Kaleyra’s technology and systems currently in use against the requirements of GDPR. Kaleyra has furthermore appointed an external global Data Protection Officer to further assure and maintain its compliance with the GDPR, where applicable. There are also additional EU laws and regulations (and member states’ implementations thereof) which govern the protection of consumers and of electronic communications.

Furthermore, outside of the EU, Kaleyra continues to see increased regulation of data privacy and security, including the adoption of more stringent subject matter specific state laws in the U.S. For example, on June 28, 2018, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt-out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation.

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Kaleyra is subject to individual or joint jurisdiction of the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), the Federal Trade Commission, state attorneys general as well as the Italian Data Protection Authority (“DPA”) (as the relevant EU National DPA) with respect to privacy and data security obligations. If Kaleyra was to suffer or if one of Kaleyra’s customers were to suffer a breach, Kaleyra may be subject to the jurisdiction of a variety of federal agencies’ jurisdictions, state attorneys general as well as of the Italian DPA. Kaleyra may have to comply with a variety of data breach laws at the federal, state and EU levels, comply with any resulting investigations, as well as offer mitigation to customers and potential end-users of certain customers to which Kaleyra provides services. Kaleyra could also be subject to fines, forfeitures and other penalties that may adversely impact Kaleyra’s business.

As Kaleyra continues to expand internationally, Kaleyra has become subject to telecommunications laws and regulations in the foreign countries where Kaleyra offers its products. Kaleyra’s international operations are subject to country-specific governmental regulation or country-specific rules imposed by local carriers with whom Kaleyra has a direct contractual relationship, or indirect relationship through a local partner company, and related actions that have increased and may continue to increase Kaleyra’s costs or impact its products and platform or prevent Kaleyra from offering or providing Kaleyra’s products in certain countries.

For example, in Italy, Kaleyra holds a license to be a fixed-line operator and is subject to the Electronic Communications Code, or the ECC, which has been enacted with Legislative Decree no. 259/2003, as amended, which transposed a package of European Directives adopted in 2002 and amended in 2009; the National Numbering Plan, issued with AGCom’s resolution no. 8/15/CIR as amended, which governs the usage of national numbers for the provision of electronic communications services as a whole; resolutions on the use of alphanumeric indications for the identification of the calling subject in SMS (so-called Alias), that are periodically issued by AGCom, starting from AGCom’s resolution no. 42/13/CIR; and the GDPR (EU Regulation 2016/679) as well as the Italian Privacy Code (Legislative Decree no. 196/2003 as amended, following the applicability of the GDPR, by the Legislative Decree no. 101/2018).

In addition, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) restricts telemarketing and the use of automatic text messages without proper consent. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to the delivery of text messages are continuously evolving and developing. If Kaleyra does not comply with these laws, or regulations or if Kaleyra becomes liable under these laws or regulations due to the failure of its customers to comply with these laws by obtaining proper consent, Kaleyra could face direct liability.

The Federal Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (“CAN-SPAM Act”) establishes certain requirements for commercial messages and transactional messages and specifies penalties for the transmission of messages that are intended to deceive the recipient as to source or content. Among other things, the CAN-SPAM Act, obligates the sender of commercial messages to provide recipients with the ability to “opt-out” of receiving future commercial communications from the sender. In addition, some states have passed laws regulating commercial communication practices that are significantly more restrictive and difficult to comply with than the CAN-SPAM Act. For example, Utah and Michigan prohibit the sending of communication messages that advertise products or services that minors are prohibited by law from purchasing (e.g., alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, illegal drugs) or that contain content harmful to minors (e.g., pornography) to message addresses listed on specified child protection registries. Some portions of these state laws may not be preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act. In addition, certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, such as Australia, Canada, and the EU, have enacted laws that regulate sending messages, and some of these laws are more restrictive than U.S. laws. For example, some foreign laws prohibit sending broad categories of messages unless the recipient has provided the sender advance consent to receipt of such messages, or in other words has “opted-in” to receiving such communication. If Kaleyra were found to be in violation of the CAN-SPAM Act, applicable state laws governing messages not preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act or foreign laws regulating the distribution of messages, whether as a result of violations by Kaleyra’s customers or its own acts or omissions, Kaleyra could be required to pay large penalties, which would adversely affect its financial condition, significantly harm Kaleyra’s business, injure Kaleyra’s reputation and erode customer trust. The terms of any injunctions, judgments, consent decrees or settlement agreements entered into in connection with enforcement actions or investigations against Kaleyra in connection with any of the foregoing laws may also require Kaleyra to change one or more aspects of the way Kaleyra operates its business, which could impair Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain customers or could increase its operating costs.

In addition, in order to provide services to consumer telephone numbers from the EU or certain other regions, Kaleyra may be required to register with the local telecommunications regulatory authorities, some of which have

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been increasingly monitoring and regulating the categories of sender identity and numbers that are eligible for provisioning services to end-user on behalf of Kaleyra’s customers. Kaleyra has registered and is in the process of registering in various countries in which Kaleyra does business, but in some countries, the regulatory regime around provisioning of services to consumer telephone numbers is unclear, subject to change over time, and sometimes may conflict from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Furthermore, these regulations and governments’ approach to their enforcement, as well as Kaleyra’s products and services, are still evolving and Kaleyra may be unable to maintain compliance with applicable regulations, or enforce compliance by Kaleyra’s customers, on a timely basis or without significant cost. Also, compliance with these types of regulation may require changes in products or business practices that result in reduced revenue.

Additionally, certain of Kaleyra’s products and services may be subject to export control and economic sanctions regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of Kaleyra’s products and the provision of Kaleyra’s services must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The risk factors summarized below could materially harm our business, operating results and/or financial condition, impair our future prospects and/or cause the price of our common stock to decline. These risks are discussed more fully in the sections below. Material risks that may affect our business, operating results and financial condition include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:

 

Kaleyra currently generates significant revenue from its largest customers, and the loss or decline in revenue from any of these customers could limit Kaleyra’s revenue and results of operations.

 

Kaleyra must increase the network traffic and resulting revenue from the services that it offers to realize its targets for anticipated revenue growth, cash flow and operating performance.

 

Customers that use many of the features of Kaleyra’s services or use Kaleyra’s services to support or enable core functionality for their applications may have difficulty or find it impractical to replace Kaleyra’s services with a competitor’s services, while customers that use only limited functionality may be able to more easily replace Kaleyra’s services with competitive offerings.

 

Kaleyra is unable to predict the extent to which the global COVID-19 pandemic or the armed conflict between Russia and Ukraine may adversely impact Kaleyra’s business operations, financial performance, results of operations and stock price.

 

The market in which Kaleyra participates is highly competitive, and if Kaleyra does not compete effectively, its business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.

 

The length and unpredictability of the sales cycle for Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could delay new sales and cause Kaleyra’s revenue and cash flows for any given quarter to fail to meet Kaleyra’s projections or market expectations.

 

The market for Kaleyra’s products and Platforms is still developing, may decline or experience limited growth and is dependent in part on developers continuing to adopt its Platforms and use its products.

 

Kaleyra’s future success depends in part on its ability to drive the adoption of its products by international customers.

 

Kaleyra is in the process of expanding its international operations, which exposes Kaleyra to significant risks.

 

Kaleyra’s operations are subject to regulation and require Kaleyra to obtain and maintain several governmental licenses and permits. If Kaleyra violates those regulatory requirements or fail to obtain and maintain those licenses and permits, including payment of related fees, if any, Kaleyra may not be able to conduct its business. Moreover, those regulatory requirements could change in a manner that significantly increases Kaleyra’s costs or otherwise adversely affects Kaleyra’s operations.

 

Certain of Kaleyra’s products are subject to telecommunications-related regulations, and future legislative or regulatory actions could harm Kaleyra’s business.

 

The future sales of shares by existing stockholders and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of Kaleyra’s common stock.

 

Kaleyra has limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for its product.

 

Breaches of Kaleyra’s networks or systems, or those of Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) or Kaleyra’s other service providers, could compromise the integrity of its products, Platforms and data, result in significant data losses and otherwise harm its business.

 

If Kaleyra loses any of its key personnel or is unable to attract and retain the talent required for its business, Kaleyra’s business could be disrupted, and its financial performance could suffer.

 

Kaleyra has experienced rapid internal growth as well as growth through acquisitions in recent periods. If Kaleyra fails to manage its growth effectively, or its business does not grow as expected, Kaleyra’s operating results may suffer.

 

If the benefits of the acquisitions of mGage and Bandyer do not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the potential for the market price of Kaleyra’s securities may decline.

 

If Kaleyra causes disruptions in its customers’ businesses or provides inadequate service, Kaleyra’s customers may have claims for substantial damages against Kaleyra, which could cause Kaleyra to lose customers, have a negative effect on Kaleyra’s reputation, and adversely affect its results of operations.

 

If Kaleyra is unable to protect its intellectual property rights from unauthorized use or infringement by third parties, its business could be adversely affected.

 

Kaleyra’s ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

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Any failure to deliver and maintain high-quality customer support may adversely affect Kaleyra’s relationships with its customers and prospective customers and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Defects or errors in Kaleyra’s services could diminish demand for Kaleyra’s services, harm Kaleyra’s business and subject Kaleyra to liability.

 

Anti-takeover provisions in Kaleyra’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of Kaleyra or changes in its management and, therefore, depress the trading price of its securities.

 

Kaleyra has never paid dividends on its capital stock and does not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, any profits from an investment in Kaleyra’s common stock will depend on whether the price of Kaleyra’s common stock increases.

 

If Kaleyra is unable to protect its information systems against service interruption or failure, misappropriation of data or breaches of security, its operations could be disrupted, it could be subject to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and its reputation may be damaged.

You should consider carefully all of the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this Annual Report, before making a decision to invest in our securities. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition and operating results may be materially adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Kaleyra’s Financial Condition and Operations

The market in which Kaleyra participates is highly competitive, and if Kaleyra does not compete effectively, its business, results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.

The CPaaS market is highly competitive and characterized by continuous technological change. The principal competitive factors in this market include completeness of offering, credibility with developers and business users, global reach, ease of integration, product features, platform scalability, brand reputation and awareness, customer support, and the cost of deployment of product offerings. Kaleyra believes that it competes favorably within each of these categories.

Kaleyra competes with several vendors across its various product lines, including:

 

Legacy on-premises vendors, such as Avaya Holdings Corp., Cisco Systems, Inc. (through its acquisition of IMIMobile), and SAP SE;

 

Direct competitors, such as CLX Communications AB (d/b/a Sinch), Twilio Inc., and Vonage Holdings Corp.;

 

Smaller software companies that compete with certain portions of Kaleyra’s communications services offerings; and

 

SaaS companies that offer prepackaged applications for a narrow set of use cases.

Some competitors have greater financial, technical and other resources, greater name and brand recognition, larger sales and marketing efforts and larger portfolios of intellectual property. As a result, certain competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or changing technologies, opportunities, standards or customer needs and requests. With the introduction of new products and services and new market entrants, Kaleyra expects competition to intensify in the future. Furthermore, as Kaleyra continues to expand the scope of its Platforms, it may face additional competition. Kaleyra is also addressing enterprises that have developed over the years “in-house” products for which Kaleyra can offer a more cost-effective, robust and richer set of products to enhance the total cost of ownership and return on investment for such customers. Kaleyra’s current and potential competitors may develop and market new services with comparable functionality to Kaleyra’s services, and this could lead to Kaleyra having to decrease prices to remain competitive. If Kaleyra is unable to maintain Kaleyra’s current pricing due to the competitive pressures, its margins will be reduced and Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.

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Customers that use many of the features of Kaleyra’s services or use Kaleyra’s services to support or enable core functionality for their applications may have difficulty or find it impractical to replace Kaleyra’s services with a competitor’s services, while customers that use only limited functionality may be able to more easily replace Kaleyra’s services with competitive offerings.

With the introduction of new services and new market entrants, Kaleyra expects competition to intensify in the future. In addition, some of Kaleyra’s customers choose to use Kaleyra’s services and Kaleyra’s competitors’ services at the same time. Moreover, as Kaleyra expands the scope of Kaleyra’s services, Kaleyra may face additional competition. Further, customers and consumers may choose to adopt other forms of electronic communications or alternative communication platforms, including developing necessary networks and platforms in-house. 

Furthermore, if Kaleyra’s competitors were to merge such that the combined entity would be able to compete fully with Kaleyra’s service offering, then Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. If one or more of Kaleyra’s competitors were to merge or partner with another of Kaleyra’s competitors, the change in the competitive landscape could also adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to compete effectively. In addition, pricing pressures and increased competition generally could result in reduced revenue, reduced margins, increased losses or the failure of Kaleyra’s services to achieve or maintain widespread market acceptance.

Kaleyra’s current and potential competitors have developed and may develop in the future product solutions that are available internationally. To the extent that customers seek product solutions that include support and scaling internationally, they may choose to use other service providers to fill their communication service needs. Each of these factors could harm Kaleyra’s business by leading to reduced revenues, slower growth and lower brand name recognition than Kaleyra’s competitors.

Kaleyra currently generates significant revenue from its largest customers, and the loss or decline in revenue from any of these customers could limit Kaleyra’s revenue and results of operations.

In the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, Kaleyra’s 10 largest customers generated an aggregate of 42% and 52% of its revenue, respectively. In the event that Kaleyra’s large customers do not continue to use its products, use fewer of its products, or use its products in a more limited capacity, or not at all, Kaleyra’s revenue could be limited and Kaleyra’s business could be harmed.

Kaleyra must increase the network traffic and resulting revenue from the services that it offers to realize its targets for anticipated revenue growth, cash flow and operating performance.

Approximately 37% of Kaleyra’s growth in fiscal year 2021 came from its existing customer base, predominantly through increased traffic volume. Kaleyra must increase the network traffic and resulting revenue from its inbound and outbound voice calling, text messaging, telephone numbers and related services at acceptable margins to realize Kaleyra’s targets for anticipated revenue growth, cash flow and operating performance. If Kaleyra does not maintain or improve its current relationships with existing key customers; is not able to expand the available capacity on its network to meet its customers’ demands in a timely manner; does not develop new large enterprise customers; or its customers determine to obtain these services from either their own network or from one of Kaleyra’s competitors, then Kaleyra may be unable to increase or maintain its revenue at acceptable margins.

Kaleyra has limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for its product.

Kaleyra charges its customers based on their use of its products. Kaleyra expects that it may need to change its pricing from time to time. In the past Kaleyra has sometimes reduced their prices either for individual customers in connection with long-term agreements or for a particular product. One of the challenges to Kaleyra’s pricing is that the fees that they pay to network service providers over whose networks Kaleyra transmits communications can vary daily or weekly and are affected by volume and other factors that may be outside of Kaleyra’s control and difficult to predict. This can result in Kaleyra incurring increased costs that Kaleyra may be unable or unwilling to pass through to its customers, which could harm Kaleyra’s business.

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Kaleyra is seeking to expand its business in the U.S. as Kaleyra believes that doing so will result in termination fees (which are the pass-through charge to access the network or carrier) that are significantly lower than the termination fees Kaleyra is subject to in the other countries where it operates, which Kaleyra expects would result in higher gross margins, especially with its enterprise customers. However, there are no assurances that Kaleyra will be successful in this expansion or achieving the related termination fee gross margin improvement.

Further, as competitors introduce new products or services that compete with Kaleyra’s or reduce their prices, Kaleyra may be unable to attract new customers or retain existing customers based on Kaleyra’s historical pricing. As Kaleyra expands internationally, Kaleyra also must determine the appropriate price to enable Kaleyra to compete effectively internationally. Moreover, enterprises, which are a primary focus for Kaleyra’s direct sales efforts, may demand substantial price concessions. In addition, if the mix of products sold changes, including for a shift to Internet protocol (“IP”) based products, then Kaleyra may need to, or choose to, revise its pricing. As a result, in the future Kaleyra may be required or choose to reduce its prices or change its pricing model, which could harm Kaleyra’s business.

To deliver Kaleyra’s products, Kaleyra relies on network service providers and Internet service providers for its network service and connectivity.

Kaleyra currently interconnects with network service providers around the world to enable the use by Kaleyra’s customers of its products over their networks. Kaleyra expects that it will continue to rely heavily on network service providers for these services going forward. Kaleyra’s reliance on network service providers has reduced Kaleyra’s operating flexibility, ability to make timely service changes and control quality of service. In addition, the fees that Kaleyra is charged by network service providers may change daily or weekly, while Kaleyra does not typically change its customers’ pricing as rapidly.

At times, some network service providers have instituted additional fees due to regulatory, competitive or other industry related changes that increase Kaleyra network costs. For example, in 2018 Kaleyra was subject to a pricing increase of more than 10% from certain mobile network service providers for delivered messages. While Kaleyra has historically responded to these types of fee increases through a combination of further negotiating efforts with Kaleyra’s network service providers, absorbing the increased costs or changing Kaleyra’s prices to customers, here Kaleyra identified a unique strategy that allowed it to change its customers prices without affecting Kaleyra’s business. There is no guarantee that Kaleyra will continue to be able to use the same strategy in the future without a material negative impact to Kaleyra business. Additionally, Kaleyra’s ability to respond to any new fees may be constrained if all network service providers in a particular market impose equivalent fee structures, if the magnitude of the fees is disproportionately large when compared to the underlying prices paid by Kaleyra customers, or if the market conditions limit Kaleyra ability to increase the price Kaleyra charges its customers.

Furthermore, some of these network service providers do not have long-term committed contracts with Kaleyra and may terminate their agreements with Kaleyra without notice or restriction. If a significant portion of Kaleyra’s network service providers stop providing Kaleyra with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to Kaleyra on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to other network service providers could be time consuming and costly and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, if problems occur with Kaleyra’s network service providers, it may cause errors or poor-quality communications with Kaleyra’s products, and it could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. The occurrence of errors or poor-quality communications on Kaleyra’s products, whether caused by Kaleyra’s Platforms or a network service provider, may result in the loss of Kaleyra’s existing customers or the delay of adoption of Kaleyra’s products by potential customers and may adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.

Kaleyra also interconnects with Internet service providers around the world to enable the use of Kaleyra’s communication products by its customers, and Kaleyra expects that it will continue to rely heavily on Internet service providers for network connectivity going forward. Kaleyra’s reliance on Internet service providers reduces Kaleyra’s control over quality of service and exposes Kaleyra to potential service outages and rate fluctuations. If a significant portion of Kaleyra’s Internet service providers stop providing Kaleyra with access to their network infrastructure, fail to provide access on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate access, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to other Internet service providers could be time consuming and costly and could harm Kaleyra’s business and operations.

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If Kaleyra is unable to expand its relationships with existing technology partner customers and add new technology partner customers, Kaleyra’s business could be harmed.

Kaleyra believes that the continued growth of its business depends in part upon developing and expanding strategic relationships with technology partner customers. Technology partner customers embed Kaleyra software products in their solutions, such as software applications for contact centers and salesforce and marketing automation, and then sell such solutions to other businesses. When potential customers do not have the available developer resources to build their own applications, Kaleyra refers them to either its technology partners who embed Kaleyra’s products in the solutions that they sell to other businesses or Kaleyra’s consulting partners who provide consulting and development services for organizations that have limited software development expertise to build Kaleyra’s Platforms into their software applications.

As part of Kaleyra’s growth strategy, it intends to expand Kaleyra’s relationships with existing technology partner customers and add new technology partner customers. If Kaleyra fails to expand its relationships with existing technology partner customers or establish relationships with new technology partner customers in a timely and cost-effective manner, or at all, then Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. Additionally, even if Kaleyra is successful at building these relationships but there are problems or issues with integrating Kaleyra’s products into the solutions of these customers, Kaleyra’s reputation and ability to grow its business may be harmed.

The length and unpredictability of the sales cycle for Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could delay new sales and cause Kaleyra’s revenue and cash flows for any given quarter to fail to meet Kaleyra’s projections or market expectations.

The timing of the sales cycle from Kaleyra’s initial contact with a potential client through the signing of a contract to provide technology offerings and services varies. As a result of the variability and length of the sales cycle, Kaleyra has a limited ability to forecast the timing of new sales. A delay in or failure to complete transactions could harm Kaleyra’s business and financial results, and could cause Kaleyra’s financial results to vary significantly from quarter to quarter. Kaleyra’s sales cycle varies widely, reflecting differences in Kaleyra’s potential customers’ decision-making processes, procurement requirements, and budget cycles, and is subject to significant risks over which Kaleyra has little or no control, including:

 

Kaleyra’s customers’ budgetary constraints and priorities;

 

the timing of Kaleyra’s customers’ budget cycles; and

 

the length and timing of customers’ approval processes.

The market for Kaleyra’s products and Platforms is still developing, may decline or experience limited growth and is dependent in part on customers continuing to adopt its Platforms and use its products.

Kaleyra and its subsidiaries have been developing its Platforms to enable business users and developers within organizations to programme voice, messaging and other communications. The market for omnichannel communication with seamless service between communication methods is relatively new and unproven and is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. Kaleyra believes that its revenue currently constitutes a portion of the total revenue in this market, and therefore, Kaleyra believes that its future success will depend in large part on the growth, if any, of this market. The utilization of APIs by developers and organizations to build communications functionality into their applications is still relatively new, and developers and organizations may not recognize the need for, or benefits of, Kaleyra products and Platforms. Moreover, if they do not recognize the need for and benefits of Kaleyra products and Platforms, they may decide to adopt alternative products and services to satisfy some portion of their business needs.

In order to grow Kaleyra’s business and extend Kaleyra's market position, Kaleyra intends to focus on educating developers and business users within organizations about the benefits of Kaleyra products and Platforms, expanding the functionality of Kaleyra products and bringing new technologies to market to increase market acceptance and use of Kaleyra’s Platforms. Kaleyra’s ability to expand the market that Kaleyra products and Platforms address depends upon a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with such products and Platforms. The market for Kaleyra’s products and Platforms could fail to grow significantly

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or there could be a reduction in demand for Kaleyra products as a result of a lack of developer acceptance, technological challenges, competing products and services, decreases in spending by current and prospective customers, weakening economic conditions and other causes. If Kaleyra’s market does not experience significant growth or demand for Kaleyra products decreases, then Kaleyra’s business and operations could be harmed.

Kaleyra’s Platforms must integrate with a variety of network, hardware, mobile and software platforms and technologies, and its need to continuously modify and enhance Kaleyra’s products and Platforms to adapt to changes and innovation in these technologies. For example, Apple, Google and other cell-phone operating system providers or inbox service providers may develop new applications or functions intended to filter spam and unwanted phone calls, messages or other communications. Similarly, Kaleyra’s network service providers may adopt new filtering technologies in an effort to combat spam or robocalling. Such technologies may inadvertently filter desired messages or calls to or from Kaleyra’s customers. If cell-phone operating system providers, network service providers, Kaleyra’s customers or their end-users adopt new software platforms or infrastructure, Kaleyra may be required to develop new versions of its products to work with those new platforms or infrastructure. This development effort may require significant resources, which would adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Any failure of Kaleyra’s products and Platforms to operate effectively with evolving or new platforms and technologies could reduce the demand for Kaleyra’s products. If Kaleyra is unable to respond to market changes in a cost-effective manner, Kaleyra’s products may become less marketable and less competitive or obsolete.

Kaleyra’s future success depends in part on its ability to drive the adoption of its products by international customers.

In the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, Kaleyra derived 55.5% and 66.9% of its revenue, respectively, from customer accounts located in Italy and India. Revenue deriving from customer accounts located in the U.S. increased from 17.3% in 2020 to 21.4% in 2021, while revenue deriving from customer accounts located in the European countries other than Italy increased from 6.7% in the year ended December 31, 2020 to 7.2% in the year ended December 31, 2021. Revenues deriving from customer accounts located in South America increased from 0% in 2020 to 7.7% in 2021. Revenue derived from customer accounts located in the rest of the world decreased from 9.1% in 2020 to 8.2% in 2021. This is in line with the expansion strategy out of Italy and India identified by Kaleyra. The future success of Kaleyra’s business will depend, in part, on Kaleyra ability to expand its customer base worldwide in new geographies. If Kaleyra is unable to increase the revenue that it derives from international customers, Kaleyra’s business and results of operations could be harmed.

Kaleyra’s global operations are subject to complex risks, some of which might be beyond its control.

Kaleyra is headquartered in Milan, Italy, has a sizable presence in India and the United States, and operates in other countries throughout the world. In addition, Kaleyra’s customers have operations throughout the world, and Kaleyra derives a substantial part of its revenue internationally. As a result, Kaleyra may be subject to risks inherently associated with international operations, including risks associated with foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and/or contractual rights, the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and regulations, including economic sanctions and export control regulations, potentially adverse tax consequences, tariffs, quotas, and other barriers, potential difficulties in collecting trade receivables, international hostilities, such as the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, terrorism, and natural disasters. Expansion of international operations also increases the likelihood of potential or actual violations of domestic and international anticorruption laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or of U.S. and international export control and sanctions regulations. Kaleyra may also face difficulties integrating any new facilities in different countries into its existing operations, as well as integrating employees that it hires in different countries into its existing corporate culture. If Kaleyra is unable to manage the risks of its global operations, its business could be harmed.

Kaleyra is in the process of expanding its international operations, which exposes Kaleyra to significant risks.

Kaleyra is continuing to expand its international operations to increase its revenue from customers outside of Italy, India and the U.S. as part of Kaleyra’s growth strategy. Between 2017 and 2021, Kaleyra’s international headcount grew from 60 employees to 564 employees. Kaleyra expects to open additional international offices and

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hire employees to work at these offices in order to reach new customers and gain access to additional technical talent. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject Kaleyra to regulatory, economic and political risks in addition to those Kaleyra already faces in Italy, India and the U.S. Because of Kaleyra’s limited experience with international operations or with developing and managing sales in additional international markets beyond Italy and India, Kaleyra’s international expansion efforts may not be successful.

In addition, Kaleyra will face risks in doing business internationally that could adversely affect its business, including:

 

exposure to political developments and economic and social conditions in the U.S. and other countries in which we are located or do business, and elsewhere as a result of geopolitical developments, such as the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which has created an uncertain political and economic environment, disruption and instability for businesses and volatility in global financial markets or which could damage or disrupt international commerce and the global economy and which therefore could have an adverse impact on our business;

 

the difficulty of managing and staffing international operations and the increased operations, travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with servicing international customers and operating numerous international locations;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to effectively price its products in competitive international markets;

 

new and different sources of competition;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to comply with the European Union’s GDPR and the privacy regulations of other jurisdictions;

 

potentially greater difficulty collecting trade receivables and longer payment cycles;

 

higher or more variable network service provider fees outside of the U.S.;

 

the need to adapt and localize Kaleyra’s products for specific countries;

 

the need to offer customer support in various languages;

 

difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations and customs in various jurisdictions;

 

understanding and reconciling different technical standards, data privacy and telecommunications regulations, registration and certification requirements in various jurisdictions, which could prevent customers from deploying Kaleyra’s products or limit their usage;

 

export controls and economic sanctions administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control or other countries, including the United Kingdom and member countries of the European Union, including those levied against Russia and Russian interests as a result of the actions of Russia in Ukraine, and additional future sanctions and controls;

 

compliance with various anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and United Kingdom Bribery Act of 2010;

 

tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;

 

more limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

adverse tax consequences;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could increase the price of Kaleyra’s products outside of the U.S., increase the expenses of Kaleyra’s international operations and expose Kaleyra to foreign currency exchange rate risk;

 

currency control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit Kaleyra’s conversion of other currencies into U.S. dollars;

 

restrictions on the transfer of funds;

 

deterioration of political relations between various countries; and

 

political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region in which Kaleyra operates, which could have an adverse impact on Kaleyra’s operations in that location.

Also, due to costs from Kaleyra’s international expansion efforts and network service provider fees outside of the U.S., which generally are higher than domestic rates, Kaleyra’s gross margin for international customers is typically lower than its gross margin for domestic customers. As a result, Kaleyra’s gross margin may be impacted and fluctuate as Kaleyra expands its operations and customer base worldwide.

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Kaleyra’s failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm Kaleyra’s business and international operations.

We contract and otherwise use third parties from throughout the world in furtherance of the provision of our services.

We currently depend on various third-party vendors throughout the world for the provision of our services to our customers. This subjects us to a number of risks ranging from the quality of the services provided to us by such vendors, to the ability of these vendors to be able to provide services to us to the extent that such vendors are themselves impacted by events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic or the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, or economic or geopolitical fallout from such events. A Singapore vendor which we use to provide a messaging gateway that we use for some international connections has a majority of its employees in Russia. The imposition of economic sanctions on Russia and Russian entities by many countries, although not targeted towards this entity, could have an impact on the services provided to us by this entity to the extent that such sanctions have an adverse economic effect on the general Russian economy. In addition, sanctions imposed by the U.S., the United Kingdom, the European Union, and other countries against Russia as a result of the military conflict in Ukraine, any related counter-sanctions, and any further escalation of the political tensions or economic instability in the area could have an adverse impact on other third party vendors. If the operations of any third parties providing services to us are disrupted or discontinued due to local instability, political, economic, or military conditions, our ability to provide services to some of our current customers and the development of new products or enhancement of existing products could be delayed, and our results of operations could be adversely affected. We anticipate that we will continue to depend on these and other third-party relationships in order to grow our business for the foreseeable future. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining existing and, if needed, establishing new relationships with third parties, our ability to efficiently operate existing services or develop new services and provide adequate customer support could be impaired, and, as a result, our competitive position or our results of operations could suffer

Kaleyra’s operations are subject to regulation and require Kaleyra to obtain and maintain several governmental licenses and permits. If Kaleyra violates those regulatory requirements or fail to obtain and maintain those licenses and permits, including payment of related fees, if any, Kaleyra may not be able to conduct its business. Moreover, those regulatory requirements could change in a manner that significantly increases Kaleyra’s costs or otherwise adversely affects Kaleyra’s operations.

In the ordinary course of operating Kaleyra’s network and providing its services, Kaleyra must obtain and maintain a variety of telecommunications and other licenses and authorizations. Kaleyra also must comply with a variety of regulatory obligations. There can be no assurance Kaleyra can maintain its licenses or that they will be renewed upon their expiration. Kaleyra’s failure to obtain or maintain necessary licenses, authorizations or to comply with the obligations imposed upon license holders, including the payment of fees, may cause sanctions or additional costs, including the revocation of authority to provide services.

Kaleyra’s operations are subject to regulation at the national level and, often, at the state and local levels. Kaleyra’s operations will become subject to additional regulation by other countries as Kaleyra expands to international markets. Changes to existing regulations or rules, or the failure to regulate going forward in areas historically regulated on matters such as network neutrality, licensing fees, environmental, health and safety, privacy, intercarrier compensation, emergency 911 services interconnection and other areas, in general or particular to Kaleyra’s industry, may increase costs, restrict operations or decrease revenue. As Kaleyra expands internationally, Kaleyra will also become subject to telecommunications laws and regulations in the foreign countries where Kaleyra offers its products. Kaleyra’s international operations are subject to country-specific governmental regulation that may increase its costs or impact its products and Platforms or prevent Kaleyra from offering or providing Kaleyra’s products in certain countries. Kaleyra’s inability or failure to comply with telecommunications and other laws and regulations could cause the temporary or permanent suspension of Kaleyra’s operations, and if Kaleyra cannot provide emergency calling functionality through its Platforms to meet any new federal or state requirements, or any applicable requirements from other countries, the competitive advantages that Kaleyra currently has may not persist, adversely affecting Kaleyra ability to obtain and to retain enterprise customers which could have an adverse impact on Kaleyra’s business.

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U.S. federal legislation and international laws impose certain obligations on the senders of commercial communications, which could minimize the effectiveness of Kaleyra’s Platforms, and establish financial penalties for non-compliance, which could increase the costs of Kaleyra’s business.

The CAN-SPAM Act establishes certain requirements for commercial messages and transactional messages and specifies penalties for the transmission of messages that are intended to deceive the recipient as to source or content. Among other things, the CAN-SPAM Act, obligates the sender of commercial messages to provide recipients with the ability to “opt-out” of receiving future commercial communications from the sender. In addition, some U.S. states have passed laws regulating commercial communication practices that are significantly more restrictive and difficult to comply with than the CAN-SPAM Act. For example, Utah and Michigan prohibit the sending of communication messages that advertise products or services that minors are prohibited by law from purchasing (e.g., alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, illegal drugs) or that contain content harmful to minors (e.g., pornography) to message addresses listed on specified child protection registries. Some portions of these state laws may not be preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act. In addition, certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, such as Australia, Canada, and the EU, have enacted laws that regulate sending messages, and some of these laws are more restrictive than U.S. laws. For example, some foreign laws prohibit sending broad categories of messages unless the recipient has provided the sender advance consent to receipt of such messages, or in other words has “opted-in” to receiving such communications. If Kaleyra were found to be in violation of the CAN-SPAM Act, applicable state laws governing messages not preempted by the CAN-SPAM Act or foreign laws regulating the distribution of messages, whether as a result of violations by Kaleyra’s customers or its own acts or omissions, Kaleyra could be required to pay large penalties, which would adversely affect its financial condition, significantly harm Kaleyra’s business, injure Kaleyra’s reputation and erode customer trust. The terms of any injunctions, judgments, consent decrees or settlement agreements entered into in connection with enforcement actions or investigations against Kaleyra in connection with any of the foregoing laws may also require Kaleyra to change one or more aspects of the way Kaleyra operates its business, which could impair Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain customers or could increase its operating costs.

Changes in laws and regulations related to the Internet or changes in the Internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for Kaleyra’s products.

The future success of Kaleyra’s business depends upon the continued use of the Internet as a primary medium for commerce, communications and business applications. U.S. federal, state or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the Internet as a commercial medium. Changes in these laws or regulations could require Kaleyra to modify its products and Platforms in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the Internet or commerce conducted via the Internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of Internet-related commerce or communications generally or result in reductions in the demand for Internet-based products and services such as Kaleyra’s products and Platforms. In addition, the use of the Internet as a business tool could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of Internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility and quality of service. The performance of the Internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been adversely affected by “viruses”, “worms”, and similar malicious programs. If the use of the Internet is reduced as a result of these or other issues, then demand for Kaleyra’s products could decline, which could impair Kaleyra’s business and reduce its financial results.

Certain of Kaleyra’s products are subject to telecommunications-related regulations, and future legislative or regulatory actions could harm Kaleyra’s business.

As Kaleyra continues to expand internationally, Kaleyra has become subject to telecommunications laws and regulations in the foreign countries where Kaleyra offers its products. For example, in Italy, Kaleyra holds a license to be a fixed-line operator and is subject to (1) the Electronic Communications Code, or the ECC, which has been enacted with Legislative Decree no. 259/2003, as amended, which transposed a package of European Directives adopted in 2002 and amended in 2009; (2) the National Numbering Plan, issued with AGCom’s resolution no. 8/15/CIR as amended, which governs the usage of national numbers for the provision of electronic communications services as a whole; (3) resolutions on the use of alphanumeric indications for the identification of the calling subject in SMS (so-called Alias), that are periodically issued by AGCom, starting from AGCom’s resolution no. 42/13/CIR; and (4) GDPR.

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Kaleyra’s international operations are subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that have increased and may continue to increase Kaleyra’s costs or impact its products and Platforms or prevent Kaleyra from offering or providing Kaleyra’s products in certain countries. Certain of Kaleyra’s products may be used by customers located in countries where voice and other forms of IP communications may be illegal or require special licensing or in countries on a U.S. embargo list. Even where Kaleyra’s products are reportedly illegal or become illegal or where users are located in an embargoed country, users in those countries may be able to continue to use Kaleyra’s products in those countries notwithstanding the illegality or embargo. Kaleyra may be subject to penalties or governmental action if consumers continue to use its products in countries where it is illegal to do so, and any such penalties or governmental action may be costly and may harm Kaleyra’s business and damage its brand and reputation. Kaleyra may be required to incur additional expenses to meet applicable international regulatory requirements or be required to discontinue those services if required by law or if Kaleyra cannot or will not meet those requirements. Any of the foregoing could harm Kaleyra’s business.

If Kaleyra is unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner or to obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers and local or toll-free numbers, Kaleyra’s business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s future success depends in part on its ability to procure large quantities of local and toll-free direct inward dialing numbers (“DIDs”), in the U.S. and in foreign countries at a reasonable cost and without restrictions. Kaleyra’s ability to procure, distribute and retain DIDs depends on factors outside of Kaleyra’s control, such as applicable local jurisdiction specific regulations, the practices of network service providers that provide DIDs, such as offering DIDs with conditional minimum volume call level requirements, the cost of these DIDs and the level of overall competitive demand for new DIDs.

In addition, in order to procure, distribute and retain telephone numbers from the EU or certain other regions, Kaleyra may be required to register with the local telecommunications regulatory authorities, some of which have been increasingly monitoring and regulating the categories of phone numbers that are eligible for provisioning to Kaleyra’s customers. Kaleyra has registered and is in the process of registering in various countries in which Kaleyra does business, but in some countries, the regulatory regime around provisioning of phone numbers is unclear, subject to change over time, and sometimes may conflict from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Furthermore, these regulations and governments’ approaches to their enforcement, as well as Kaleyra’s products and services, are still evolving and Kaleyra may be unable to maintain compliance with applicable regulations, or enforce compliance by Kaleyra’s customers, on a timely basis or without significant cost. Also, compliance with these types of regulation may require changes in products or business practices that result in reduced revenue. If Kaleyra or its customers use phone numbers in these countries in a manner that violates applicable rules and regulations, Kaleyra may also be subject to significant penalties or governmental action, including government-initiated audits and, in extreme cases, may be precluded from doing business in that particular country. In the event of such non-compliance, Kaleyra may be forced to reclaim phone numbers from Kaleyra’s customers, which could result in loss of customers, breach of contract claims, loss of revenue, reputational harm, and erosion of customer trust, all of which could harm Kaleyra’s business and reputation.

Due to their limited availability, there are certain popular area code prefixes that Kaleyra generally cannot obtain. Kaleyra’s inability to acquire or retain DIDs for its operations would make Kaleyra’s voice and messaging products less attractive to potential customers in the affected local geographic areas. In addition, future growth in Kaleyra’s customer base, together with growth in the customer bases of other providers of cloud communications, has increased, which increases Kaleyra’s dependence on sufficiently large quantities of DIDs. It may become increasingly difficult to source larger quantities of DIDs as Kaleyra’s scale and its need to pay higher costs for DIDs, and DIDs may become subject to more stringent regulation or conditions of usage such as the registration and on-going compliance requirements discussed above could harm Kaleyra’s business.

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Kaleyra customers’ and other users’ violation of Kaleyra’s policies or other misuse of Kaleyra’s Platforms to transmit unauthorized, offensive or illegal messages, spam, phishing scams, and website links to harmful applications or for other fraudulent or illegal activity could damage Kaleyra’s reputation, and Kaleyra may face a risk of litigation and liability for unauthorized, inaccurate, or fraudulent information distributed via Kaleyra’s Platforms.

The actual or perceived improper sending of text messages may subject Kaleyra to potential risks, including liabilities or claims relating to consumer protection laws. For example, the TCPA restricts telemarketing and the use of automatic text messages without proper consent. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to the delivery of text messages are continuously evolving and developing. If Kaleyra does not comply with these laws or regulations or if Kaleyra becomes liable under these laws or regulations due to the failure of Kaleyra’s customers to comply with these laws by obtaining proper consent, Kaleyra could face direct liability.

Moreover, despite Kaleyra’s ongoing and substantial efforts to limit such use, certain customers may use Kaleyra’s Platforms to transmit unauthorized, offensive or illegal messages, spam, phishing scams, and website links to harmful applications, reproduce and distribute copyrighted material or the trademarks of others without permission, and report inaccurate or fraudulent data or information. These issues also arise with respect to a portion of those users who use Kaleyra’s Platforms on a free trial basis. These actions are in violation of Kaleyra’s policies. However, Kaleyra’s efforts to defeat spamming attacks and other fraudulent activity will not prevent all such attacks and activity, such use of Kaleyra’s Platforms could damage Kaleyra’s reputation and it could face claims for damages, copyright or trademark infringement, defamation, negligence, or fraud. Moreover, Kaleyra customers’ and other users’ promotion of their products and services through Kaleyra’s Platforms might not comply with U.S. federal, state, and foreign laws. Kaleyra relies on contractual representations made to Kaleyra by its customers that their use of Kaleyra’s Platforms will comply with Kaleyra’s policies and applicable law, including, without limitation, Kaleyra’s message communication policy. Although Kaleyra will retain the right to verify that customers and other users are abiding by certain contractual terms, Kaleyra’s Authorized Use Policy and Kaleyra’s message communication policy and, in certain circumstances, to review their distribution lists, Kaleyra’s customers and other users are ultimately responsible for compliance with Kaleyra’s policies, and it does not systematically audit Kaleyra’s customers or other users to confirm compliance with Kaleyra’s policies. Kaleyra cannot predict whether Kaleyra’s role in facilitating its customers’ or other users’ activities would expose Kaleyra to liability under applicable law. Even if claims asserted against Kaleyra do not result in liability, Kaleyra may incur substantial costs in investigating and defending such claims. If Kaleyra is found liable for its customers’ or other users’ activities, Kaleyra could be required to pay fines or penalties, redesign business methods or otherwise expend resources to remedy any damages caused by such actions and to avoid future liability.

Kaleyra may be subject to governmental export controls and economic sanctions regulations that could impair Kaleyra’s ability to compete in international markets due to licensing requirements and could subject Kaleyra to liability if Kaleyra is not in compliance with applicable laws.

Certain of Kaleyra’s products and services may be subject to export control and economic sanctions regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration regulations, U.S. Customs regulations and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. Exports of Kaleyra’s products and the provision of Kaleyra’s services must be made in compliance with these laws and regulations. Although Kaleyra takes precautions to prevent its products from being provided in violation of such laws, Kaleyra is aware of previous exports of certain of Kaleyra’s products to a small number of persons and organizations that are the subject of U.S. sanctions or located in countries or regions subject to U.S. sanctions. If Kaleyra fails to comply with these laws and regulations, Kaleyra and certain of its employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including: the possible loss of export privileges; fines, which may be imposed on Kaleyra and responsible employees or managers; and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular deployment may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. In addition, changes in Kaleyra’s products or services, or changes in applicable export or economic sanctions regulations may create delays in the introduction and deployment of Kaleyra’s products and services in international markets, or, in some cases, prevent the export of Kaleyra’s products or provision of Kaleyra’s services to certain countries or end-users. Any change in export or economic sanctions regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations,

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could also result in decreased use of Kaleyra’s products and services, or in its decreased ability to export Kaleyra’s products or provide Kaleyra’s services to existing or prospective customers with international operations. Any decreased use of Kaleyra’s products and services or limitation on Kaleyra’s ability to export its products and provide its services could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Further, Kaleyra incorporates encryption technology into certain of its products. Various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit Kaleyra’s customers’ ability to import its products into those countries. Encryption products and the underlying technology may also be subject to export control restrictions. Governmental regulation of encryption technology and regulation of exports of encryption products, or Kaleyra’s failure to obtain required approval for Kaleyra’s products, when applicable, could harm Kaleyra’s international sales and adversely affect Kaleyra’s revenue. Compliance with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the export of Kaleyra’s products and provision of Kaleyra’s services, including with respect to new releases of Kaleyra’s products and services, may create delays in the introduction of Kaleyra’s products and services in international markets, prevent Kaleyra’s customers with international operations from deploying its products and using Kaleyra’s services throughout their globally-distributed systems or, in some cases, prevent the export of Kaleyra’s products or provision of Kaleyra’s services to some countries altogether.

In addition, beginning in February 2022, the U.S., the United Kingdom, the European Union and other countries began imposing severe sanctions and export controls targeting Russia as a result of the armed conflict by Russia in Ukraine. We, our customers, and our business partners, will be required to comply with these and potential additional sanctions imposed by the U.S., the United Kingdom, the European Union and by other countries. Kaleyra reviews our contractual relationships with suppliers/customers to establish whether any are subject to the sanctions. In the unlikely event of that we identify a party with which we have a business relationship appearing on a sanctions list, we would immediately activate a legal analysis of what gives rise to the business relationship, including any contract, to estimate the most appropriate course of action to comply with the sanction regulations, together with the impact of a contractual termination according to the applicable law, and then proceed as required by the regulatory authorities , However, given the range of possible outcomes, the full costs, burdens, and limitations on our and our customer’s and business partners’ businesses are currently unknown and may become significant.

Kaleyra faces a risk of litigation resulting from customer misuse of Kaleyra’s services and software to make or send unauthorized calls and/or text messages in violation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act.

Calls and/or text messages originated by Kaleyra’s customers may subject Kaleyra to potential risks. For example, the TCPA restricts telemarketing and the use of technologies that enable automatic calling and/or text messages without proper consent. This may result in civil claims against Kaleyra and requests for information through third-party subpoenas or regulatory investigations. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to the making and/or delivery of calls and/or text messages are continuously evolving and developing. If Kaleyra does not comply with these laws or regulations or if Kaleyra becomes liable under these laws or regulations due to the failure of Kaleyra’s customers to comply with these laws by obtaining proper consent, Kaleyra could become subject to lawsuits, fines, civil penalties, potentially significant statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity, loss of user confidence in Kaleyra services, loss of users and other adverse consequences, which could harm Kaleyra’s business.

The effects of increased regulation in the United States of IP-based service providers are unknown.

While the FCC has to date generally subjected IP-based service providers to less stringent regulatory oversight than traditional common carriers, the FCC has imposed certain regulatory obligations on providers of voice-over-internet protocol (“VoIP”) services, including the obligations to contribute to the Universal Service Fund, to provide 911 services and/or to comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. Some states have imposed taxes, fees and/or surcharges on VoIP telephony services. The imposition of additional regulations could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s business.

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If Kaleyra experiences fraudulent activity, Kaleyra could incur substantial costs.

Kaleyra’s products may be subject to fraudulent usage, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams and other fraudulent schemes. Although Kaleyra’s customers are required to set passwords or personal identification numbers to protect their accounts, third parties have in the past been, and may in the future be, able to access and use their accounts through fraudulent means. Furthermore, spammers attempt to use Kaleyra’s products to send targeted and untargeted spam messages. Kaleyra cannot be certain that its efforts to defeat spamming attacks will be successful in eliminating all spam messages from being sent using Kaleyra’s Platforms. In addition, a cybersecurity breach of Kaleyra’s customers’ systems could result in exposure of their authentication credentials, unauthorized access to their accounts or fraudulent calls on their accounts, any of which could harm Kaleyra’s reputation with its customers and result in the incurrence of substantial costs for Kaleyra.

Kaleyra may be liable for the information that content owners or distributors distribute over Kaleyra’s network.

The law relating to the liability of private network operators for information carried on or disseminated through their networks remains unsettled. While Kaleyra disclaims any liability for third-party content in Kaleyra’s services agreements, Kaleyra may become subject to legal claims relating to the content disseminated on Kaleyra’s network, even though such content is owned or distributed by Kaleyra customers or a customer of Kaleyra customers. For example, lawsuits may be brought against Kaleyra claiming that material distributed using Kaleyra’s network was inaccurate, offensive or violated the law or the rights of others. Claims could also involve matters such as defamation, invasion of privacy and copyright infringement. In addition, the law remains unclear over whether content may be distributed from one jurisdiction, where the content is legal, into another jurisdiction, where it is not. Companies operating private networks have been sued in the past, sometimes successfully, based on the nature of material distributed, even if the content is not owned by the network operator and the network operator has no knowledge of the content or its legality. It is not practical for Kaleyra to monitor all of the content distributed using Kaleyra’s network. Kaleyra may need to take costly measures to reduce Kaleyra’s exposure to these risks or to defend itself against such claims, which could increase Kaleyra’s costs and harm its results of operations.

Kaleyra has never paid dividends on its common stock, and does not anticipate paying any cash dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future.

Kaleyra has never declared or paid cash dividends on its common stock. Kaleyra does not anticipate paying any cash dividends on its common stock in the foreseeable future. Kaleyra currently intends to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of its business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of Kaleyra’s common stock will be stockholders’ sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

Kaleyra has incurred significant indebtedness as a result of the acquisition of mGage, which could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s financial condition.

In connection with Kaleyra’s acquisition of mGage, Kaleyra incurred $200 million in additional indebtedness. As of December 31, 2021, Kaleyra’s total consolidated long term indebtedness to banks and other lenders was approximately $22.9 million. Kaleyra may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of its indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy its obligations under indebtedness that may not be successful. The inability in the future to repay such indebtedness when due would have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra.

Kaleyra’s indebtedness could have important consequences to its stockholders and the holders of its other securities including:

 

increasing Kaleyra’s vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

requiring that a portion of Kaleyra’s cash flow from operations be used for the payment of interest on its debt, thereby reducing its ability to use its cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate requirements;

 

limiting Kaleyra’s ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate requirements;

 

limiting Kaleyra’s flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in its business;

 

restricting Kaleyra’s ability or the ability to pay dividends or make other payments; and

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placing Kaleyra at a competitive disadvantage to its competitors that have less indebtedness.

Kaleyra may incur additional indebtedness in the future, including secured indebtedness. If new indebtedness is added to Kaleyra’s current indebtedness levels, the related risks that it faces could intensify.

Risks Related to Kaleyra’s Financial Controls

Kaleyra previously had material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting. If Kaleyra’s remediation of these material weaknesses is not effective or if Kaleyra experiences additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fails to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting in the future, Kaleyra may not be able to produce timely and accurate consolidated financial statements and comply with applicable regulations, which may adversely affect investor confidence and the value of our common stock.

Prior to the Business Combination, Kaleyra was a special purpose acquisition company formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization, or other similar business combination with one or more target businesses. As a result, previously existing internal controls were no longer applicable or comprehensive enough since Kaleyra’s operations before the Business Combination were insignificant compared to those of the consolidated entity after the Business Combination. During fiscal year 2020, Kaleyra implemented processes and controls as part of its remediation efforts to address material weaknesses that were identified during the assessment of the year ended December 31, 2019.  A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Following the remediation of the material weaknesses, Kaleyra’s management concluded that Kaleyra’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020.

Kaleyra cannot assure that the measures it has taken to date, and the further improvements to strengthen its internal controls that Kaleyra is continuing to implement, will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses. Accordingly, there could continue to be a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of Kaleyra’s consolidated financial statements would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

If Kaleyra fails to identify new material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting, if Kaleyra is unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, if Kaleyra is unable to conclude that its internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if its independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting when Kaleyra is no longer an emerging growth company, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of Kaleyra’s consolidated financial reports and the market price of Kaleyra’s common stock could be negatively affected. As a result of such failures, Kaleyra could also become subject to investigations by the NYSE, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, and become subject to litigation from investors and stockholders, which could harm its reputation and financial condition or divert financial and management resources from Kaleyra’s regular business activities.

Kaleyra must continue to develop effective business support systems to implement customer orders and to provide and bill for services.

Kaleyra depends on its ability to continue to develop effective business support systems. This complicated undertaking requires significant resources and expertise and support from third-party vendors. Following the development of the business support systems, the data migration must be completed for the full benefit of the systems to be realized. Business support systems are needed for:

 

quoting, accepting and inputting customer orders for services;

 

provisioning, installing and delivering services;

 

providing customers with direct access to the information systems included in Kaleyra’s Platforms so that they can manage the services they purchase from Kaleyra, generally through web-based customer portals; and

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billing for services.

Because Kaleyra’s business provides for continued rapid growth in the number of customers that Kaleyra serves, the volume of services offered, as well as the integration of any acquired companies’ business support systems, if any, Kaleyra must continue to develop its business support systems on a schedule sufficient to meet proposed milestone dates. If Kaleyra fails to develop effective business support systems or complete the data migration into these systems, it could materially adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to implement its business plans, realize anticipated benefits from Kaleyra’s acquisitions, if any, and meet Kaleyra’s financial goals and objectives.

Risks Related to Kaleyra’s Corporate Structure and Securities

Stockholders of Kaleyra may not be able to enforce judgments entered by U.S. courts against certain of its officers and directors.

Kaleyra is incorporated in the State of Delaware. However, some of our directors and executive officers reside outside of the U.S. As a result, stockholders of Kaleyra may not be able to effect service of process upon those persons within the U.S. or enforce against those persons judgments obtained in U.S. courts.

Kaleyra’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides, subject to limited exceptions, that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware be the sole and exclusive forum for certain stockholder litigation matters, which could limit Kaleyra’s stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Kaleyra or its directors, officers, employees or stockholders.

Kaleyra’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in Kaleyra’s name, actions against its directors, officers, and employees for breach of fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to service of process on such stockholder’s counsel except any action (A) as to which the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within ten days following such determination), (B) which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery, (C) for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction, or (D) any action arising under the Securities Act, as to which the Court of Chancery and the federal district court for the District of Delaware shall have concurrent jurisdiction. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of Kaleyra’s capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the forum provisions in its second amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Kaleyra or any of its directors, officers, or employees which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims, although Kaleyra’s stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. However, there is no assurance that a court would enforce the choice of forum provision contained in Kaleyra’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation. If a court were to find such provision to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, Kaleyra may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm its business, operating results and financial condition.

Kaleyra’s second amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the exclusive forum provision will be applicable to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the exclusive forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

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The future sales of shares by existing stockholders and future exercise of registration rights may adversely affect the market price of Kaleyra’s common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of Kaleyra’s common stock in the public market could occur at any time. If Kaleyra’s stockholders sell, or the market perceives that Kaleyra’s stockholders intend to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the market price of our common stock could decline.

In connection with their initial purchase of the Company’s securities, the Company’s initial stockholders were granted registration rights pursuant to the terms of a registration rights agreement. In connection with the Business Combination, the Company agreed to amend and restate this registration rights agreement with the Registration Rights Agreement. Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, after the date of closing of the Business Combination, the sellers’ representative under the Stock Purchase Agreement for the Business Combination, Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) or the holders of at least a majority-in-interest of the then-outstanding shares issued to or issuable to the Company’s initial stockholders, and the shares issued in the Business Combination (collectively, the “Business Combination Registrable Securities”) will be entitled to make up to three demands (not counting any demand by Cowen to register our securities) that we register the Business Combination Registrable Securities. Such registration rights are subject to certain requirements and limitations as set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement. In addition, and subject to certain requirements and limitations as set forth in the Registration Rights Agreement, the holders of the Business Combination Registrable Securities have certain “piggy-back” registration rights with respect to registration statements filed subsequent to our consummation of the Business Combination. The Business Combination Registrable Securities were registered in accordance with the “piggy-back” registration rights for resale on a registration statement that the SEC declared effective in May 2020.  The Company has also agreed to provide certain registration rights to unregistered shares of common stock and shares of common stock that may be issued pursuant to outstanding convertible notes with certain stockholders of the Company. Chardan Capital Markets, LLC, (“Chardan”) currently holds 66,089 shares of common stock and a convertible note that is convertible at Chardan’s option into 53,501 shares of common stock, all of which are subject to such registration rights.

In addition, Kaleyra issued 1,600,000 shares of Kaleyra common stock as partial consideration to the existing stockholders of Vivial in connection with the acquisition of mGage, and registered such transaction and issuance on a registration statement on Form S-4 on May 6, 2021. In connection with the acquisition, Kaleyra issued 8,400,000 shares of Kaleyra common stock to the PIPE Investors and the Merger Convertible Notes are convertible into up to 11,851,852 shares of Kaleyra common stock. Kaleyra registered the resale of the 8,400,000 shares of Kaleyra common stock issued to the PIPE Investors and the resale of the Kaleyra common stock issuable upon conversion of the Merger Convertible Notes (the “Resale Registration Statement”). The Resale Registration Statement was declared effective in May 2021.

Conversion of the Merger Convertible Notes that were issued in connection with the acquisition of mGage will dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders, or may otherwise depress the market price of Kaleyra common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the Merger Convertible Notes issued in connection with the acquisition of mGage will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of the shares of Kaleyra common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of Kaleyra common stock. In addition, the existence of the Merger Convertible Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Merger Convertible Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Merger Convertible Notes into shares of Kaleyra common stock could depress the market price of Kaleyra common stock.

Warrants are exercisable for Kaleyra’s common stock, and upon any exercise would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to Kaleyra’s stockholders.

Kaleyra has outstanding issued warrants to purchase a total of 5,440,662 shares of common stock. Each whole warrant is exercisable to purchase one share of common stock at $11.50 per share. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the then existing holders of the common stock and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of the common stock.

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Kaleyra has no obligation to net cash settle the warrants.

In no event does Kaleyra have any obligation to net cash settle the warrants. Furthermore, there are no contractual penalties for failure to deliver securities to the holders of the warrants upon exercise of the warrants. Accordingly, the warrants may expire worthless.

Certain of our warrants are accounted for as a warrant liability and are recorded at fair value upon issuance with changes in fair value each period reported in earnings, which may have an adverse effect on the market price of Kaleyra common stock.

Kaleyra has 373,691 warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2021 that were issued in private placements that occurred concurrently with its initial public offering (the “private warrants”). These private warrants and the shares of Kaleyra common stock issuable upon the exercise of the private warrants are exercisable for cash or on a cashless basis, at the holder’s option, and are non-redeemable so long as they are held by the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees. If the private warrants are held by someone other than the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees, the private warrants will be redeemable by the Company and exercisable by such holders on the same basis as the warrants included in the units sold in the Company’s initial public offering, in which case the 373,691 private warrants could be redeemed by the Company for $3,737. Under U.S. GAAP, Kaleyra is required to evaluate contingent exercise provisions of these warrants and then their settlement provisions to determine whether they should be accounted for as a warrant liability or as equity. Any settlement amount not equal to the difference between the fair value of a fixed number of Kaleyra’s equity shares and a fixed monetary amount precludes these warrants from being considered indexed to its own stock, and therefore, from being accounted for as equity. As a result of the provision that the private warrants, when held by someone other than the initial purchasers or their permitted transferees, will be redeemable by the Company, the requirements for accounting for these warrants as equity are not satisfied. Therefore, Kaleyra is required to account for these private warrants as a warrant liability and record (a) that liability at fair value, which was determined as the same as the fair value of the warrants included in the units sold in the Company’s initial public offering, and (b) any subsequent changes in fair value as of the end of each period for which earnings are reported. As the fair value of the warrants was not considered material to the historical consolidated financial statements, it was recorded in the consolidated financial statements during the year ended December 31, 2021. The impact of changes in fair value on earnings may have an adverse effect on the market price of Kaleyra common stock.

Kaleyra may redeem the unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making the holders’ warrants worthless.

Kaleyra has the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of the common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date Kaleyra sends the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. If and when the warrants become redeemable by Kaleyra, Kaleyra may exercise its redemption right even if it is unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force holders (i) to exercise their warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for the holders to do so, (ii) to sell their warrants at the then-current market price when the holders might otherwise wish to hold their warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of the warrants. None of the private placement warrants will be redeemable by Kaleyra so long as they are held by their initial purchasers or their permitted transferees.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in the second amended and restated certificate of incorporation as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

The second amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. Kaleyra is also subject to anti-takeover provisions under Delaware law, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for Kaleyra’s securities.

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The fundamental change repurchase feature of the Merger Convertible Notes that were issued in connection with the acquisition of mGage may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial attempt to take over Kaleyra.

The terms of the Merger Convertible Notes require Kaleyra to repurchase the Merger Convertible Notes that were issued in connection with the acquisition of mGage for cash at the option of the holder in the event of a fundamental change and in certain circumstances require us to increase the conversion rate for conversions in connection with (i) a make-whole fundamental change or (ii) the delivery of a notice of redemption. A takeover of Kaleyra may trigger an option of the holder to require Kaleyra to repurchase the Merger Convertible Notes. These features may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of Kaleyra that would otherwise be beneficial to investors in the Merger Convertible Notes or Kaleyra’s other securities.

Kaleyra’s structure may be inefficient from a tax perspective.

Kaleyra S.p.A. is a controlled foreign corporation of Kaleyra for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This means that a substantial part of the net income, if any, of Kaleyra S.p.A. and its non‑U.S. subsidiaries will be taxable to Kaleyra without regard to whether a dividend is paid to Kaleyra, subject to available foreign tax credits and a special deduction. Moreover, because Kaleyra S.p.A. has a U.S. subsidiary, the resulting structure (sometimes referred to as a “sandwich structure”) would be subject to multiple levels of tax. Generally speaking, it is difficult to simplify a sandwich structure without incurring taxes in one or more jurisdictions. This corporate structure may have the effect of Kaleyra being required to pay more taxes than other companies with a simpler corporate structure.

General Risk Factors

If Kaleyra is unable to expand or renew sales to existing clients, or attract new customers, Kaleyra’s growth could be slower than it expects and its business may be harmed.

Kaleyra’s future growth depends upon expanding sales of Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services with existing customers and with new customers. Kaleyra’s customers may not purchase Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services, or Kaleyra’s customers may reduce their purchasing volumes, if Kaleyra does not demonstrate the value proposition for their investment, and Kaleyra may not be able to replace existing customers with new customers. In addition, Kaleyra’s customers may not renew their contracts with Kaleyra on the same terms, or at all, because of dissatisfaction with Kaleyra’s service. If Kaleyra’s customers do not renew their contracts, Kaleyra’s revenue may grow more slowly than expected, may not grow at all, or may decline. Additionally, increasing incremental sales to Kaleyra’s current client base may require increasingly sophisticated and costly sales efforts that are targeted at senior management. Kaleyra plans to continue expanding its sales efforts but it may be unable to hire qualified sales personnel, may be unable to successfully train those sales personnel that Kaleyra is able to hire, and sales personnel may not become fully productive on the timelines that it has projected, or at all. Additionally, although Kaleyra dedicates significant resources to sales and marketing programs, these sales and marketing programs may not have the desired effect and may not expand sales. Kaleyra cannot make any assurances that its efforts will increase sales to existing customers or additional revenue. If Kaleyra’s efforts to upsell to its customers are not successful, its future growth may be limited.

Kaleyra’s ability to achieve significant growth in revenue in the future will also depend upon its ability to attract new customers. This may be particularly challenging where an organization has already invested substantial personnel and financial resources to integrate competing technology offerings and services into its business, as such organization may be reluctant or unwilling to invest in new technology offerings and services. If Kaleyra fails to attract new customers and maintain and expand those client relationships, its revenue may grow more slowly than expected and its business may be harmed.

Kaleyra’s business depends on customers increasing their use of Kaleyra’s services and any loss of customers or decline in their use of Kaleyra’s services could reduce Kaleyra’s profitability.

Kaleyra’s ability to grow and generate incremental revenue depends, in part, on Kaleyra’s ability to maintain and grow its relationships with existing customers and to have them increase their usage of Kaleyra’s Platforms. If Kaleyra’s customers do not increase their use of Kaleyra’s services, then Kaleyra’s revenue may decline and Kaleyra’s results of operations may be harmed. Customers generally are charged based on the usage of Kaleyra’s services. Many of Kaleyra’s customers do not have long-term contractual financial commitments to Kaleyra and,

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therefore, many of Kaleyra’s customers may reduce or cease their use of Kaleyra’s services at any time without penalty or termination charges. Kaleyra cannot accurately predict customers’ usage levels and the loss of customers or reductions in their usage levels of Kaleyra’s services may each have a negative impact on Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition and may cause Kaleyra’s dollar-based net retention rate to decline in the future if Kaleyra’s customers are not satisfied with Kaleyra’s services. If a significant number of customers cease using, or reduce their usage of, Kaleyra’s services, then Kaleyra may be required to spend significantly more on sales and marketing than Kaleyra’s currently plan to spend in order to maintain or increase revenue from customers. Such additional sales and marketing expenditures could reduce Kaleyra’s profitability and harm its business.

Demand for Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could be adversely affected by volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions and the effects of these conditions on Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses.

Kaleyra’s revenue and profitability depend on the demand for its technology offerings and services, which could be negatively affected by numerous factors, many of which are beyond Kaleyra’s control. Volatile, negative, or uncertain economic conditions affect Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses and the markets Kaleyra serves. Such economic conditions in Kaleyra’s markets have undermined, and could in the future undermine, business confidence in Kaleyra’s markets and cause Kaleyra’s customers to reduce or defer their spending on new technology offerings and services, or may result in customers reducing, delaying or eliminating spending under existing contracts with Kaleyra, which would negatively affect Kaleyra’s business. Growth in the markets Kaleyra serves could be at a slow rate, or could stagnate or contract, in each case for an extended period of time. Ongoing economic volatility and uncertainty and changing demand patterns affect Kaleyra’s business in a number of other ways, including making it more difficult to accurately forecast client demand and effectively build Kaleyra’s revenue and resource plans.

Economic volatility and uncertainty are particularly challenging because it may take some time for the effects and changes in demand patterns resulting from these and other factors to manifest themselves in Kaleyra’s business and results of operations. Changing demand patterns from economic volatility and uncertainty could harm Kaleyra’s business and results of operations.

Breaches of Kaleyra’s networks or systems, or those of AWS or Kaleyra’s other service providers, could compromise the integrity of its products, Platforms and data, result in significant data losses and otherwise harm its business.

Kaleyra depends upon its information technology (“IT”) systems to conduct virtually all of its business operations, ranging from Kaleyra’s internal operations and research and development activities to its marketing and sales efforts and communications with Kaleyra’s customers and business partners. Individuals or entities may attempt to penetrate Kaleyra’s network security, or that of its Platforms, and to cause harm to Kaleyra’s business operations, including by misappropriating its proprietary information or that of its customers, employees and business partners or to cause interruptions of Kaleyra’s products and Platforms. In particular, cyberattacks and other malicious Internet-based activity continue to increase in frequency and in magnitude generally, and cloud-based companies have been targeted in the past. In addition to threats from traditional computer hackers, malicious code (such as malware, viruses, worms, and ransomware), employee theft or misuse, password spraying, phishing, credential stuffing, and denial-of-service attacks, Kaleyra also faces threats from sophisticated organized crime, nation-state, and nation-state supported actors who engage in attacks (including advanced persistent threat intrusions) that add to the risk to Kaleyra’s systems (including those hosted on AWS or other cloud services), internal networks, its customers’ systems and the information that they store and process. While Kaleyra devotes significant financial and personnel resources to implement and maintain security measures, because the techniques used by such individuals or entities to access, disrupt or sabotage devices, systems and networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, Kaleyra may be required to make further investments over time to protect data and infrastructure as cybersecurity threats develop, evolve and grow more complex over time. Kaleyra may also be unable to anticipate these techniques, and Kaleyra may not become aware in a timely manner of such a security breach, which could exacerbate any damage Kaleyra experiences. Additionally, Kaleyra depends upon its employees and contractors to appropriately handle confidential and sensitive data, including customer data, and to deploy Kaleyra’s IT resources in a safe and secure manner that does not expose Kaleyra’s network systems to security breaches or the loss of data. Any data security incidents, including internal malfeasance by its employees or a third party’s fraudulent inducement of Kaleyra’s employees to disclose information, unauthorized access or usage, virus or similar breach or disruption of Kaleyra’s or its service providers, such as

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AWS or service providers, could result in loss of confidential information, damage to Kaleyra’s reputation, erosion of customer trust, loss of customers, litigation, regulatory investigations, fines, penalties and other liabilities. Accordingly, if Kaleyra’s cybersecurity measures or those of AWS or Kaleyra’s service providers, fail to protect against unauthorized access, attacks (which may include sophisticated cyberattacks), compromise or the mishandling of data by Kaleyra’s employees and contractors, then Kaleyra’s reputation, customer trust, business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. While Kaleyra maintains errors, omissions, and cyber liability insurance policies covering certain security and privacy damages, Kaleyra cannot be certain that its existing insurance coverage will continue to be available on acceptable terms or will be available in sufficient amounts to cover the potentially significant losses that may result from a security incident or breach or that the insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim.

Kaleyra’s investments in new services and technologies may not be successful.

Kaleyra continues to invest in new services and technologies. The complexity of these solutions, Kaleyra’s learning curve in developing and supporting them, and significant competition in the markets for these solutions could make it difficult for Kaleyra to market and implement these solutions successfully. Additionally, there is a risk that Kaleyra’s customers may not adopt these solutions widely, which would prevent Kaleyra from realizing expected returns on these investments. Even if these solutions are successful in the market, they still rely on third-party hardware and software and Kaleyra’s ability to meet stringent service levels. If Kaleyra is unable to deploy these solutions successfully or profitably, it could adversely impact its business.

If Kaleyra fails to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards, changing regulations, and changing customer needs, requirements or preferences, Kaleyra’s products may become less competitive.

The market for communications in general, and cloud communications in particular, is subject to rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, changing regulations, as well as changing customer needs, requirements and preferences. The success of Kaleyra’s business will depend, in part, on Kaleyra’s ability to adapt and respond effectively to these changes on a timely basis. If Kaleyra is unable to develop new products that satisfy Kaleyra customers and provide enhancements and new features for Kaleyra’s existing products that keep pace with rapid technological and industry change, Kaleyra business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. If new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products and services at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely, such technologies could adversely impact Kaleyra’s ability to compete effectively.

If Kaleyra loses any of its key personnel or is unable to attract and retain the talent required for its business, Kaleyra’s business could be disrupted and its financial performance could suffer.

Kaleyra’s success is heavily dependent upon its ability to attract, develop, engage, and retain key personnel to manage and grow its business, including Kaleyra’s key executive, management, sales, services, and technical personnel.

Kaleyra’s future success will depend to a significant extent on the efforts of Kaleyra’s executive team including the leadership of Kaleyra’s Chief Executive Officer, Dario Calogero, as well as the continued service and support of other key employees. Kaleyra’s future success also will depend on its ability to attract and retain highly skilled technology specialists, engineers, and consultants, for whom the market is extremely competitive. All of Kaleyra’s officers and key employees are at-will employees, meaning that they can terminate their employment with Kaleyra at any time. Kaleyra’s inability to attract, develop, and retain key personnel could have an adverse effect on its relationships with its technology partners and customers and adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to expand its offerings of technology offerings and services. Moreover, Kaleyra’s inability to train its sales, services, and technical personnel effectively to meet the rapidly changing technology needs of its customers could cause a decrease in the overall quality and efficiency of such personnel. Such consequences could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain business and personnel may depend on its reputation in the marketplace.

Kaleyra believes its brand name and its reputation in the marketplace are important corporate assets that help distinguish Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services from those of competitors and also contribute to Kaleyra’s

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ability to recruit and retain talented personnel, in particular its engineers and consulting professionals. However, Kaleyra’s corporate reputation is potentially susceptible to material damage by events such as disputes with customers, cybersecurity breaches, service outages, internal control deficiencies, delivery failures, or compliance violations. Similarly, Kaleyra’s reputation could be damaged by actions or statements of current or former customers, directors, employees, competitors, vendors, partners, Kaleyra’s joint ventures or joint venture partners, adversaries in legal proceedings, legislators, or government regulators, as well as members of the investment community or the media. There is a risk that negative information about Kaleyra, even if based on rumor or misunderstanding, could adversely affect its business. Damage to Kaleyra’s reputation could be difficult, expensive and time-consuming to repair, could make potential or existing customers reluctant to select Kaleyra for new engagements, resulting in a loss of business, and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s recruitment and retention efforts. Damage to Kaleyra’s reputation could also reduce the value and effectiveness of Kaleyra’s brand name and could reduce investor confidence in Kaleyra, adversely affecting its share price.

Kaleyra has experienced rapid internal growth as well as growth through acquisitions in recent periods. If Kaleyra fails to manage its growth effectively, or its business does not grow as expected, Kaleyra’s operating results may suffer.

Kaleyra’s headcount and operations have grown substantially. Kaleyra had 564 employees as of December 31, 2021, as compared with 350 employees as of December 31, 2020. This growth has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on Kaleyra’s operational, financial, and management infrastructure. Kaleyra anticipates further increases in headcount will be required to support increases in its technology offerings and continued expansion. To manage this growth effectively, Kaleyra must continue to improve its operational, financial, and management systems as well as controls by, among other things:

 

effectively attracting, training, and integrating a large number of new employees, particularly technical personnel and members of Kaleyra’s management and sales teams;

 

further improving Kaleyra’s key business systems, processes, and information technology infrastructure to support Kaleyra’s business needs;

 

enhancing Kaleyra’s information and communication systems to ensure that Kaleyra’s employees are well-coordinated and can effectively communicate with each other and Kaleyra’s customers; and

 

improving Kaleyra’s internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures to ensure timely and accurate reporting of Kaleyra’s operational and financial results.

If Kaleyra fails to manage its expansion or implement Kaleyra’s new systems, or if Kaleyra fails to implement improvements or maintain effective internal controls and procedures, Kaleyra’s costs and expenses may increase more than expected and Kaleyra may not expand its client base, increase existing customer volumes and renewal rates, enhance its existing applications, develop new applications, satisfy its customers, respond to competitive pressures, or otherwise execute its business plan. If Kaleyra is unable to manage its growth, Kaleyra’s operating results likely will be harmed.

Future acquisitions could disrupt Kaleyra’s business and may divert management’s attention, and if unsuccessful, harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra may choose to expand by making acquisitions that could be material to its business. Acquisitions involve many risks, including the following:

 

an acquisition may negatively affect Kaleyra’s results of operations and financial condition because it may require Kaleyra to incur charges or assume substantial debt or other liabilities, may cause adverse tax consequences or unfavorable accounting treatment, may expose Kaleyra to claims and disputes by third parties, including intellectual property claims and disputes, or may not generate sufficient financial return to offset additional costs and expenses related to the acquisition;

 

Kaleyra may encounter difficulties or unforeseen expenditures in integrating the business, technologies, products, personnel, or operations of any company that it acquires, particularly if key personnel of the acquired company decide not to work for Kaleyra;

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an acquisition may disrupt its ongoing business, divert resources, increase Kaleyra’s expenses, or distract its management;

 

an acquisition may result in a delay or reduction of client purchases for both Kaleyra and the company it acquired due to client uncertainty about continuity and effectiveness of service from either company;

 

Kaleyra may encounter difficulties in, or may be unable to, successfully sell any acquired technology offerings or services;

 

an acquisition may involve the entry into geographic or business markets in which Kaleyra has little or no prior experience or where competitors have stronger market positions;

 

the challenges inherent in effectively managing an increased number of employees in diverse locations;

 

the potential strain on its financial and managerial controls and reporting systems and procedures;

 

the potential known and unknown liabilities associated with an acquired company;

 

Kaleyra’s use of cash to pay for acquisitions would limit other potential uses for its cash;

 

if Kaleyra incurs additional debt to fund such acquisitions, such debt may subject Kaleyra to additional material restrictions on its ability to conduct its business as well as additional financial maintenance covenants;

 

the risk of impairment charges related to potential write-downs of acquired assets or goodwill in future acquisitions;

 

to the extent that Kaleyra issues a significant amount of equity or equity-linked securities in connection with future acquisitions, existing stockholders may be diluted and earnings per share may decrease; and

 

managing the varying intellectual property protection strategies and other activities of an acquired company.

Kaleyra may not succeed in addressing these or other risks or any other problems encountered in connection with the integration of any acquired business. The inability to integrate successfully the business, technologies, products, personnel, or operations of any acquired business, or any significant delay in achieving integration, could harm its business and results of operations.

The combination of the Kaleyra and mGage businesses may not lead to the growth and success of the combined business that Kaleyra believes will occur.

Although Kaleyra believes the combination of the Kaleyra and mGage businesses provides a significant commercial opportunity for growth, Kaleyra may not realize all of the synergies that it anticipates and may not be successful in implementing its commercialization strategy. The combined business will be subject to all of the risks and uncertainties inherent in the pursuit of growth in the CPaaS industry and Kaleyra may not be able to successfully sell its and mGage’s products and services, or realize the anticipated benefits expected as part of the combination of the two businesses. If Kaleyra is not able to grow the combined business as a commercial enterprise, its financial condition will be negatively impacted.

Although Kaleyra expects to realize certain benefits as a result of the acquisition of mGage, there is the possibility Kaleyra may be unable to integrate successfully the business of mGage to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition or do so within the intended timeframe.

Following the acquisition of mGage, Kaleyra is devoting significant management attention and resources to the integration of the business practices and operations of Kaleyra and mGage. Potential difficulties that Kaleyra may encounter as part of the integration process include the following:

 

the costs of integration and compliance and the possibility that the full benefits anticipated to result from the acquisition will not be realized;

 

any delay in the integration of management teams, strategies, operations, products and services;

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diversion of the attention of management as a result of integrating the mGage business into Kaleyra;

 

lack of going-forward commitment of mGage customers, based on fatigue, loss of trust, disapproval or the directions of mGage pre-acquisition, or Kaleyra post-acquisition;

 

loss of customers that will consider Kaleyra to be a competitor post-acquisition, or due to the acquisition of a customer by a competitor to Kaleyra;

 

differences in business backgrounds, corporate cultures and management philosophies that may delay successful integration;

 

the ability to create and enforce uniform standards, controls, procedures, policies and information systems;

 

the challenge of integrating complex systems, technology, networks and other assets of mGage into those of Kaleyra in a manner that minimizes any adverse impact on customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies;

 

potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses or delays associated with the integration of mGage;

 

the disruption of, or the loss of momentum in, our ongoing businesses; and

 

the potential unknown and undisclosed technical deficiencies and lack of required features and functionalities at the mGage products and services that will prevent the deployment and sale of those products and services. It is only through our interactions with the customers during the months following the acquisition that we will be able to define whether our products are salable and deployable whatsoever, or are not competitive, and hence will not be capable of generating meaningful revenue.

Any of these factors could adversely affect the ability of Kaleyra to benefit financially from the acquisition of mGage, maintain relationships with customers, suppliers, employees and other constituencies or its ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of mGage or could reduce or even completely diminish the earnings or otherwise adversely affect the business and financial results of Kaleyra.

Kaleyra expects to continue incur additional integration and consolidation related costs related to the integration of the mGage business.

Kaleyra completed the acquisition of the mGage business on June 1, 2021. Kaleyra has incurred and expects to incur non-recurring costs associated with integrating the operations of mGage into its business. The amount of these costs could be material to the financial position and results of operations of Kaleyra. A substantial amount of such expenses includes facilities and systems consolidation costs, implementing integration plans, and employee-related costs. The combined company has and will continue to incur restructuring and integration costs in connection with the acquisition. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred, as there are a large number of processes, policies, procedures, operations, technologies and systems that must be integrated in connection with the acquisition and the integration of the two companies’ businesses. The elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses, may not offset incremental transaction and other integration related costs in the near term or at all.

Kaleyra may not have discovered undisclosed liabilities and product deficiencies of mGage.

Kaleyra’s due diligence review of mGage may not have discovered undisclosed liabilities and product and service deficiencies of mGage. If mGage has undisclosed liabilities or product or service deficiencies, Kaleyra as a successor owner may be responsible for such undisclosed liabilities. Kaleyra has tried to control its exposure to undisclosed liabilities by obtaining certain protections as contemplated and provided for under the Merger Agreement, including representations and warranties from mGage regarding undisclosed liabilities, however, such representations and warranties expire by their terms on the completion of the Merger. There can be no assurance that such provisions in the Merger Agreement will protect Kaleyra against any undisclosed liabilities or product or service deficiencies being discovered or provide an adequate remedy for any undisclosed liabilities that are discovered. Such undisclosed liabilities could have an adverse effect on the business and results of operations of Kaleyra and may adversely affect the value of Kaleyra common stock after the consummation of the Merger.

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Uncertainties associated with the integration of the mGage business may cause a loss of employees and may otherwise materially adversely affect the future business and operations of Kaleyra following the Merger.

Kaleyra’s success depends upon the ability of Kaleyra to retain senior management and key employees of Kaleyra and mGage. In some of the fields in which Kaleyra and mGage operate, there are only a limited number of people in the job market who possess the requisite skills, and it may be increasingly difficult for Kaleyra to hire personnel over time. Kaleyra operates in many geographic locations where the labor markets, especially for software engineers, are particularly competitive.

Current and prospective employees of Kaleyra and mGage may experience uncertainty about their roles with Kaleyra following the integration of the mGage business. In addition, key employees may depart because of issues relating to the uncertainty and difficulty of integration or a desire not to remain with Kaleyra. The loss of services of certain senior management or key employees of Kaleyra and mGage or the inability to hire new personnel with the requisite skills could restrict the ability of Kaleyra to develop new products or enhance existing products in a timely manner, or to sell products to customers or to manage the business of Kaleyra following the integration effectively. Also, the business, financial condition and results of operations of Kaleyra following the integration could be materially adversely affected by the loss of any of its key employees, by the failure of any key employee to perform in his or her current position, or by Kaleyra’s inability to attract and retain skilled employees, particularly engineers.

Kaleyra may experience quarterly fluctuations in its operating results due to a number of factors, which makes its future results difficult to predict and could cause its operating results to fall below expectations.

Kaleyra’s quarterly operating results have fluctuated in the past and Kaleyra expects them to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of Kaleyra’s control. As a result, Kaleyra’s past results may not be indicative of its future performance and comparing Kaleyra’s operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. In addition to the other risks described in this Annual Report, factors that may affect Kaleyra’s quarterly operating results include:

 

changes in spending on collaboration and technology offerings and services by Kaleyra’s current or prospective customers;

 

pricing Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services effectively so that Kaleyra is able to attract and retain customers without compromising its operating results;

 

attracting new customers and increasing Kaleyra’s existing customers’ use of Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services;

 

the mix between wholesale and retail maintenance new contracts and renewals;

 

client renewal rates and the amounts for which agreements are renewed;

 

seasonality and its effect on client demand;

 

awareness of Kaleyra’s brand;

 

changes in the competitive dynamics of Kaleyra’s market, including consolidation among competitors or customers and the introduction of new technologies and technology enhancements;

 

changes to the commission plans, quotas, and other compensation-related metrics for Kaleyra’s sales representatives;

 

the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly sales and marketing expense;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to manage its existing business and future growth, domestically and internationally;

 

unforeseen costs and expenses related to the expansion of Kaleyra’s business, operations, and infrastructure, including disruptions in Kaleyra’s hosting network infrastructure and privacy and data security; and

 

general economic and political conditions in Kaleyra’s domestic and international markets.

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Kaleyra may not be able to accurately forecast the amount and mix of future technology offerings and services, size or duration of contracts, revenue, and expenses and, as a result, Kaleyra’s operating results may fall below its estimates. Risks related to confidentiality and security provisions or privacy laws will increase as Kaleyra continues to grow its cloud-based offerings and services and store and process increasingly large amounts of Kaleyra’s customers’ confidential information and data and host or manage parts of Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses, especially in industries involving particularly sensitive data such as the financial services industry and the healthcare industry. The loss or unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or employee data, including personal data, whether through breach of computer systems, systems failure, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, or otherwise, could damage Kaleyra’s reputation and cause it to lose customers. Similarly, unauthorized access to or through Kaleyra’s information systems and networks or those Kaleyra develops or manages for its customers, whether by Kaleyra’s employees or third parties, could result in negative publicity, legal liability, and damage to Kaleyra’s reputation, which could in turn harm Kaleyra’s business and results of operations.

If Kaleyra causes disruptions in its customers’ businesses or provides inadequate service, Kaleyra’s customers may have claims for substantial damages against Kaleyra, which could cause Kaleyra to lose customers, have a negative effect on Kaleyra’s reputation, and adversely affect its results of operations.

If Kaleyra makes errors in the course of delivering services for its customers or business partners, or fails to consistently meet its service level obligations or other service requirements of Kaleyra’s customers, these errors or failures could disrupt Kaleyra’s client’s business, which could result in a reduction in its revenue or a claim for substantial damages against Kaleyra. In addition, a failure or inability by Kaleyra to meet a contractual requirement could subject Kaleyra to penalties, cause Kaleyra to lose customers or damage Kaleyra’s brand or corporate reputation, and limit Kaleyra’s ability to attract new business.

The services Kaleyra provides are often critical to Kaleyra’s customers’ businesses. Certain of Kaleyra’s client contracts require Kaleyra to comply with security obligations including maintaining network security and backup data, ensuring Kaleyra’s network is virus-free, maintaining business continuity planning procedures, and verifying the integrity of employees that work with Kaleyra’s customers by conducting background checks. Any failure in a client’s system, failure of Kaleyra’s data center, cloud or other offerings, or breach of security relating to the services Kaleyra provides to the client could damage Kaleyra’s reputation or result in a claim for substantial damages against Kaleyra. Any significant failure of Kaleyra’s equipment or systems, or any major disruption to basic infrastructure in the locations in which Kaleyra operates, such as power and telecommunications, could impede Kaleyra’s ability to provide services to Kaleyra’s customers, have a negative impact on Kaleyra’s reputation, cause Kaleyra to lose customers, and adversely affect its results of operations.

Under Kaleyra’s client contracts, Kaleyra’s liability for breach of its obligations is in some cases limited pursuant to the terms of the contract. Such limitations may be unenforceable or otherwise may not protect it from liability for damages. In addition, certain liabilities, such as claims of third parties for which Kaleyra may be required to indemnify its customers, are generally not limited under Kaleyra’s contracts. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against Kaleyra in amounts greater than those covered by Kaleyra’s current insurance policies could harm Kaleyra’s financial condition. Even if such assertions against it are unsuccessful, Kaleyra may incur reputational harm and substantial legal fees.

Kaleyra’s technology offerings and services could infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others or Kaleyra might lose its ability to utilize the intellectual property of others.

Kaleyra cannot be sure that its brand, technology offerings, and services, including, for example, the software solutions of others that Kaleyra offers to its customers, do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties, and these third parties could claim that Kaleyra or its customers are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. These claims could harm Kaleyra’s reputation, cause Kaleyra to incur substantial costs or prevent Kaleyra from offering some services or solutions in the future or require Kaleyra to rebrand. Any related proceedings could require Kaleyra to expend significant resources over an extended period of time. In most of Kaleyra’s contracts, Kaleyra agrees to indemnify its customers for expenses and liabilities resulting from claimed infringements of the intellectual property rights of third parties. Any claims or litigation in this area, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and costly, damage Kaleyra’s reputation, and/or require Kaleyra to incur additional costs to obtain the right to continue to offer a service or solution to its customers. If Kaleyra cannot secure this right

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at all or on reasonable terms, or, alternatively, substitute a non-infringing technology, Kaleyra’s business, results of operations, or financial condition could be harmed. Similarly, if Kaleyra is unsuccessful in defending a trademark claim, Kaleyra could be forced to re-brand, which could harm its business, results of operations, or financial condition. Additionally, in recent years, individuals and firms have purchased intellectual property assets where their sole or primary purpose is to assert claims of infringement against technology providers and customers that use such technology. Any such action naming Kaleyra or its customers could be costly to defend or lead to an expensive settlement or judgment against Kaleyra. Moreover, such an action could result in an injunction being ordered against Kaleyra’s client or Kaleyra’s own services or operations, causing further damages.

If Kaleyra is unable to protect its intellectual property rights from unauthorized use or infringement by third parties, its business could be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s success depends, in part, upon its ability to protect its proprietary methodologies and other intellectual property. Existing laws offer only limited protection of Kaleyra’s intellectual property rights, and the protection in some countries in which Kaleyra operates or may operate in the future may be very limited. Kaleyra relies upon a combination of confidentiality policies, nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements, and trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws to protect its intellectual property rights. These laws are subject to change at any time and could further limit its ability to protect its intellectual property. There is uncertainty concerning the scope of available intellectual property protection for software and business methods, which are fields in which Kaleyra relies on intellectual property laws to protect its rights. The validity and enforceability of any intellectual property right Kaleyra obtains may be challenged by others and, to the extent it has enforceable intellectual property rights, those intellectual property rights may not prevent competitors from reverse engineering its proprietary information or independently developing technology offerings and services similar to or duplicative of Kaleyra. Further, the steps Kaleyra takes in this regard might not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other misappropriation of its intellectual property by competitors, former employees or other third parties, and Kaleyra might not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce, its intellectual property rights. Enforcing Kaleyra’s rights might also require considerable time, money, and oversight, and Kaleyra may not be successful in enforcing its rights.

Kaleyra’s use of open source software could negatively affect its ability to sell Kaleyra’s products and subject Kaleyra to possible litigation.

Kaleyra’s products and Platforms incorporate open source software, and Kaleyra expects to continue to incorporate open source software in its products and Platforms in the future. Few of the licenses applicable to open source software have been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on Kaleyra’s ability to commercialize its products and Platforms. Moreover, although Kaleyra has implemented policies to regulate the use and incorporation of open source software into Kaleyra’s products and Platforms, Kaleyra cannot be certain that it has not incorporated open source software in Kaleyra products or Platforms in a manner that is inconsistent with such policies. If Kaleyra fails to comply with open source licenses, Kaleyra may be subject to certain requirements, including requirements that it offer Kaleyra’s products that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that Kaleyra make available source code for modifications or derivative works Kaleyra creates based upon, incorporating or using the open source software and that it license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of applicable open source licenses. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that Kaleyra has not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, Kaleyra could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from generating revenue from customers using products that contained the open source software and required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on these products. In any of these events, Kaleyra and its customers could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering Kaleyra’s products and Platforms and to re-engineer Kaleyra’s products or Platforms or discontinue offering its products to customers in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis. Any of the foregoing could require Kaleyra to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer Kaleyra’s products or Platforms, which could result in customer dissatisfaction and could harm Kaleyra’s business.

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If Kaleyra is unable to collect its receivables from, or bill its unbilled services to its customers, its business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s business depends on its ability to successfully obtain payment from its customers of the amounts they owe Kaleyra for technology offerings sold or services performed. Kaleyra typically evaluates the financial condition of its customers and usually bills and collects on relatively short cycles. Kaleyra maintains allowances against receivables and unbilled services. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that Kaleyra currently anticipate and, as a result, Kaleyra might need to adjust its allowances. There is no guarantee that Kaleyra will accurately assess the creditworthiness of its customers. Macroeconomic conditions could also result in financial difficulties for Kaleyra’s customers, including limited access to the credit markets, insolvency, or bankruptcy, and, as a result, could cause customers to delay payments to Kaleyra, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase Kaleyra’s receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to Kaleyra. Timely collection of client balances also depends on Kaleyra’s ability to complete its contractual commitments and bill and collect its contracted revenue. If Kaleyra is unable to meet its contractual requirements, it might experience delays in collection of and/or be unable to collect its client balances. In addition, if Kaleyra experiences an increase in the time to bill and to collect for its services, Kaleyra’s cash flows could be negatively impacted.

Unfavorable global economic conditions could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by general conditions in the global economy and in the global financial markets. Furthermore, the most recent global financial crisis caused extreme volatility and disruptions in the capital and credit markets. A severe or prolonged economic downturn, including due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or one that could result from the recent military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, could result in a variety of risks to our business, including a reduced ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, or at all. Furthermore, supply chain issues that developed in 2021, and the nature, magnitude, and duration of hostilities stemming from Russia’s military conflict with Ukraine, including the effects of sanctions and retaliatory cyber-attacks on the world economy and markets, could negatively impact our business. Any of the foregoing could harm our business and we cannot anticipate all of the ways in which the current economic climate and financial market conditions could adversely impact our business.

Kaleyra’s products and Platforms and its business are subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations, including those regarding data protection and information security, and Kaleyra customers may be subject to regulations related to the handling and transfer of certain types of sensitive and confidential information. Any failure of Kaleyra’s products to comply with or enable its customers and channel partners to comply with applicable laws and regulations could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra and its customers that use Kaleyra’s products may be subject to data protection-related laws and regulations that impose obligations in connection with the collection, processing and use of personal data, financial data, health or other similar data. The U.S. federal and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed limitations on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of personally identifiable information of individuals. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission and numerous state attorneys general are applying federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards on the online collection, use and dissemination of data, and to the security measures applied to such data.

Similarly, many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the EU member states, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of personally identifiable information obtained from individuals located in the EU or by businesses operating within their jurisdiction, which are often more restrictive than those in the U.S. laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of personally identifiable information that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, telephone numbers, message addresses and, in some jurisdictions, IP addresses and other online identifiers.

For example, in April 2016 the EU adopted the GDPR, which took full effect on May 25, 2018. GDPR enhances data protection obligations for businesses and requires service providers (data processors) processing personal data on behalf of customers to cooperate with European data protection authorities, implement security measures and keep records of personal data processing activities. Noncompliance with the GDPR can trigger fines equal to or greater of €20 million or 4% of global annual revenues. Given the breadth and depth of changes in data

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protection obligations, preparing to meet the requirements of GDPR has required significant time and resources, including a review of Kaleyra’s technology and systems currently in use against the requirements of GDPR. There are also additional EU laws and regulations (and member states’ implementations thereof) which govern the protection of consumers and of electronic communications. If Kaleyra’s efforts to comply with GDPR or other applicable EU laws and regulations are not successful, Kaleyra may be subject to penalties and fines that would adversely impact Kaleyra’s business and results of operations, and Kaleyra’s ability to conduct business in the EU could be significantly impaired.

Furthermore, outside of the EU, Kaleyra continues to see increased regulation of data privacy and security, including the adoption of more stringent subject matter specific state laws in the U.S. For example, on June 28, 2018, California enacted the CCPA, which took effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase Kaleyra’s compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent state privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase Kaleyra’s potential liability and adversely affect its business.

Kaleyra continues to see jurisdictions imposing data localization laws, which require personal information, or certain subcategories of personal information to be stored in the jurisdiction of origin. These regulations may inhibit Kaleyra’s ability to expand into those markets or prohibit Kaleyra from continuing to offer services in those markets without significant additional costs. The uncertainty and changes in the requirements of multiple jurisdictions may increase the cost of compliance, delay or reduce demand for Kaleyra’s services, restrict Kaleyra’s ability to offer services in certain locations, impact Kaleyra’s customers’ ability to deploy its solutions in certain jurisdictions, or subject Kaleyra to sanctions, by national data protection regulators.

Additionally, although Kaleyra endeavors to have its products and Platforms comply with applicable laws and regulations, these and other obligations may be modified, they may be interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and they may conflict with one another, other regulatory requirements, contractual commitments or Kaleyra’s internal practices.

Kaleyra also may be bound by contractual obligations relating to its collection, use and disclosure of personal, financial and other data or may find it necessary or desirable to join industry or other self-regulatory bodies or other privacy- or data protection-related organizations that require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data protection.

Kaleyra expects that there will continue to be new proposed laws, rules of self-regulatory bodies, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the U.S, the EU and other jurisdictions, and Kaleyra cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, rules, regulations and standards may have on Kaleyra’s business. Moreover, existing U.S. federal and various state and foreign privacy- and data protection-related laws and regulations are evolving and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current or enact new laws and regulations regarding privacy- and data protection-related matters. Because global laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy and data security have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that Kaleyra or its products or Platforms may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such applicable law, regulation and industry standard and compliance with such new laws or to changes to existing laws may impact Kaleyra’s business and practices, requires Kaleyra to expend significant resources to adapt to these changes, or to stop offering Kaleyra’s products in certain countries. These developments could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Any failure or perceived failure by Kaleyra, its products or its Platforms to comply with new or existing U.S., EU or other foreign privacy or data security laws, regulations, policies, industry standards or legal obligations, or any security incident that results in the unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of, personally identifiable information or other customer data may result in governmental investigations, inquiries, enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties, adverse publicity or potential loss of business.

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Kaleyra is subject to privacy and data security obligations in the U.S. Any failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations or contractual obligations may harm Kaleyra’s business. The Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), other federal agencies or state attorneys general could fine or subject Kaleyra to other adverse actions that may negatively impact Kaleyra’s business reputation. If Kaleyra is subject to an investigation or suffers a breach, Kaleyra may incur costs or be subject to forfeitures and penalties that could reduce Kaleyra’s profitability.

Kaleyra is subject to privacy and data security laws and regulations that impose obligations in connection with the collection, processing and use of personal data. Federal and state laws or proposed laws impose limits on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of personally identifiable information (“PII”) of individuals. Kaleyra sees increased regulation of data privacy and security, including the adoption of more stringent subject matter specific state laws in the U.S. For example, in 2018, California enacted the CCPA, which became effective on January 1, 2020. As discussed in the above Risk Factor, the CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase Kaleyra’s compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent state privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase Kaleyra’s potential liability and adversely affect its business.

Kaleyra also may be bound by contractual obligations relating to Kaleyra’s collection, use and disclosure of personal data or may find it necessary or desirable to join industry or other self-regulatory bodies or other privacy or security related organizations that require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data protection.

Kaleyra is subject to individual or joint jurisdiction of the FCC, the Federal Trade Commission, and state attorneys general with respect to privacy and data security obligations. If Kaleyra was to suffer or if one of Kaleyra’s customers were to suffer a breach, Kaleyra may be subject to the jurisdiction of a variety of federal agencies’ jurisdictions as well as state attorneys general. Kaleyra may have to comply with a variety of data breach laws at the federal and state levels, comply with any resulting investigations, as well as offer mitigation to customers and potential end-users of certain customers to which Kaleyra provides services. Kaleyra could also be subject to fines, forfeitures and other penalties that may adversely impact Kaleyra’s business.

Any failure or perceived failure by Kaleyra, its products or its Platforms to comply with new or existing U.S. privacy or data security laws, regulations, policies, industry standards or contractual or legal obligations, or any security incident that results in the unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of, PII or other customer data may result in governmental investigations, inquiries, enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties, adverse publicity or potential loss of business.

The storage, processing and use of personal information and related data subjects Kaleyra to evolving governmental laws and regulation, commercial standards, contractual obligations and other legal obligations related to consumer and data privacy, which may have a material impact on Kaleyra’s costs, use of Kaleyra’s services, or expose Kaleyra to increased liability.

U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations, commercial obligations and industry standards, each provide for obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security, as well as the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure and protection of personal information and other customer data, including customer proprietary network information under applicable federal law. The evolving nature of these obligations and restrictions subjects Kaleyra to the risk of differing interpretations, inconsistency or conflicts among countries or rules, and creates uncertainty regarding their application to Kaleyra’s business.

These obligations and restrictions may limit Kaleyra’s ability to collect, store, process, use, transmit and share data with Kaleyra’s customers, employees and third-party providers and to allow Kaleyra’s customers to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process, transmit, share and disclose data with others through Kaleyra’s services. Compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, such obligations and restrictions could increase the cost of Kaleyra’s operations and impact its ability to market its services through effective segmentation.

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Failure to comply with obligations and restrictions related to applicable data protection laws, regulations, standards, and codes of conduct, as well as Kaleyra’s own posted privacy policies and contractual commitments could subject Kaleyra to lawsuits, fines, criminal penalties, statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity, loss of user confidence in Kaleyra’s services, and loss of users, which could materially harm Kaleyra’s business. Because these obligations and restrictions have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that Kaleyra may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such obligation and restriction. Additionally, third-party contractors may have access to customer or employee data. If these or other third-party vendors violate obligations and restrictions related to applicable data protection laws or Kaleyra’s policies, such violations may also put Kaleyra’s customers’ or employees’ information at risk and could in turn harm Kaleyra’s business.

Changes in laws or regulations, or a failure to comply with any laws and regulations, may adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, investments and results of operations.

Kaleyra is subject to laws, regulations and rules enacted by national, regional and local governments. In particular, Kaleyra is required to comply with certain SEC, the NYSE, the NYSE American and other legal or regulatory requirements. Compliance with, and monitoring of, applicable laws, regulations and rules may be difficult, time consuming and costly. Those laws, regulations and rules and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s business, investments and results of operations. In addition, a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and rules, as interpreted and applied, could have a material adverse effect on Kaleyra’s business and results of operations.

Unfavorable conditions in Kaleyra’s industry or the global economy or reductions in spending on information technology and communications could lower Kaleyra’s revenue and harm its business.

Kaleyra’s results of operations may vary based on the impact of changes in Kaleyra’s industry or the global economy on Kaleyra’s customers. Kaleyra’s results of operations depend in part on demand for information technology and cloud communications. In addition, Kaleyra’s revenue is dependent on the usage of Kaleyra’s products, which in turn is influenced by the scale of business that Kaleyra’s customers are conducting. To the extent that weak economic conditions result in a reduced volume of business for, and communications by, Kaleyra’s customers and prospective customers, demand for, and use of, Kaleyra’s products may decline. Furthermore, weak economic conditions may make it more difficult to collect on outstanding trade receivables. Kaleyra has generated a portion of its revenue from small and medium-sized businesses, and Kaleyra expects this to continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Small and medium-sized business may be affected by economic downturns to a greater extent than enterprises, and typically have more limited financial resources, including capital borrowing capacity, than enterprises. If Kaleyra’s customers reduce their use of Kaleyra’s products, or prospective customers delay adoption or elect not to adopt Kaleyra products, as a result of a weak economy, this could lower Kaleyra’s revenue and harm its business.

Kaleyra may require additional capital to support Kaleyra’s business, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

Kaleyra intends to continue to make investments to support Kaleyra’s business and may require additional funds. In particular, Kaleyra may seek additional funds to develop new products and enhance Kaleyra’s Platforms and existing products, expand Kaleyra’s operations, including Kaleyra’s sales and marketing organizations and Kaleyra’s presence outside of the U.S., improve Kaleyra’s infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets. In addition, Kaleyra may use a portion of its cash to satisfy tax withholding and remittance obligations related to outstanding restricted stock units. Accordingly, Kaleyra may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If Kaleyra raises additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, in addition to the Financing, Kaleyra’s stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities Kaleyra issues could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of Kaleyra’s common stock. Any debt financing that Kaleyra may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to Kaleyra’s capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for Kaleyra to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. Kaleyra may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to Kaleyra, if at all. If Kaleyra is unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to Kaleyra when Kaleyra requires it, Kaleyra’s ability to continue to support its business growth, scale its infrastructure, develop product

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enhancements and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired and could harm Kaleyra’s business.

Kaleyra’s business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods and other natural catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as power disruptions, computer viruses, data security breaches or terrorism.

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire or flood, occurring at Kaleyra’s headquarters, at one of Kaleyra’s other facilities or where a business partner is located could adversely affect Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, if a natural disaster or man-made problem were to affect Kaleyra’s service providers, this could adversely affect the ability of Kaleyra’s customers to use its products and Platforms. In addition, natural disasters and acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in Kaleyra’s or its customers’ businesses, national economies or the world economy as a whole. Kaleyra also rely on its network and third-party infrastructure and enterprise applications and internal technology systems for Kaleyra’s engineering, sales and marketing, and operations activities. Although Kaleyra maintains incident management and disaster response plans, in the event of a major disruption caused by a natural disaster or man-made problem, Kaleyra may be unable to continue its operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in Kaleyra’s development activities, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security and the loss of critical data.

In addition, computer malware, viruses and computer hacking, fraudulent use attempts and phishing attacks have become more prevalent in Kaleyra’s industry, have occurred on Kaleyra’s Platforms in the past and may occur on Kaleyra’s Platforms in the future. Though it is difficult to determine what, if any, harm may directly result from any specific interruption or attack, any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security, integrity and availability of Kaleyra’s products and technical infrastructure to the satisfaction of Kaleyra’s users may harm Kaleyra’s reputation and Kaleyra’s ability to retain existing users and attract new users.

Kaleyra is unable to predict the extent to which the global COVID-19 pandemic may adversely impact Kaleyra’s business operations, financial performance, results of operations and stock price.

The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to control its spread have, in the past and continue to, significantly curtail the movement of people, goods and services worldwide, including in most or all of the regions in which Kaleyra sells its products and services and conduct its business operations. Kaleyra also has its headquarters in Milan, Italy, which has been severely affected by the first wave of COVID-19 and the resulting government lockdowns to attempt to contain the spread of COVID-19. The fifth wave of COVID-19 triggered by the surge of the Omicron variant is currently affecting a large number of countries across the globe, and additional government restrictions are expected to reduce the resurgence in the pandemic infections. The magnitude and duration of the resulting decline in business activity cannot currently be estimated with any degree of certainty and threatens to (1) negatively impact the demand for its products and services, especially in those locations subject to “shelter in place” restrictions or similar government orders, (2) restrict its sales operations and marketing efforts, and (3) disrupt other important business activities in its various locations, some of which are also in areas affected by COVID-19. For example, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of the Omicron variant, certain industry events that Kaleyra sponsors or at which Kaleyra presents or at which we present and certain customer events have been canceled, postponed or moved to virtual-only experiences; Kaleyra is encouraging all of its employees to work remotely; and Kaleyra may deem it advisable to similarly alter, postpone or cancel entirely additional customer, employee or industry events in the future. Additionally, Kaleyra may see its services carrying less revenue-generating traffic in areas subject to “shelter in place” restrictions or related government orders as the population of those areas refrain from traveling and normal commerce activities. Accordingly, Kaleyra expects the COVID-19 pandemic to potentially have a negative impact on its sales and its results of operations in those areas adversely affected by COVID-19, the size and duration of which Kaleyra are currently unable to predict. In addition, Kaleyra’s implementation of business continuity plans in a fast-moving public health emergency could have an adverse effect on its internal controls (potentially giving rise to significant discrepancies or material weaknesses) and increase our vulnerability to information technology and other systems discrepancies. Furthermore, concerns over the economic impact of COVID-19 have caused extreme volatility in financial and other capital markets which has and may continue to adversely impact Kaleyra’s stock price and its ability to access capital.

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If Kaleyra’s goodwill or intangible assets become impaired, Kaleyra may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.

Kaleyra reviews its intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at least annually. As of December 31, 2021, Kaleyra carried a net $235.9 million of goodwill and intangible assets, net. An adverse change in market conditions, particularly if such change has the effect of changing one of Kaleyra’s critical assumptions or estimates, could result in a change to the estimation of fair value that could result in an impairment charge to Kaleyra’s goodwill or intangible assets. Any such charges may adversely affect Kaleyra’s results of operations.

Changes in the international and U.S. taxation business activities or the adoption of other tax reform policies could materially impact Kaleyra’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

Changes to tax laws in jurisdictions where Kaleyra currently does business may be enacted in the future and could impact the tax treatment of Kaleyra’s earnings. Due to the expansion of Kaleyra’s business activities into new geographic regions, any changes in the taxation of such activities may increase Kaleyra’s worldwide effective tax rate. An increase in overall tax rate could reduce Kaleyra’s cash flow and lower Kaleyra’s overall profitability.

Kaleyra’s ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2021, Kaleyra had federal, state and foreign net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards totaling $157.9 million, $177.8 million and $5.4 million, respectively. However, Kaleyra’s ability to utilize these NOLs to offset taxable income may be limited in the future. A corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is typically subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-ownership change NOLs to offset future taxable income. In general, under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), an ownership change occurs if the aggregate stock ownership of certain stockholders (generally 5% stockholders, applying certain look-through and aggregation rules) increases by more than 50 percentage points over such stockholders’ lowest percentage ownership during the testing period (generally three years). Purchases or sales of Kaleyra’s common stock in amounts greater than specified levels could create a limitation on Kaleyra’s ability to utilize our NOLs for tax purposes in the future. Limitations imposed on Kaleyra’s ability to utilize NOLs could cause U.S. federal and state income taxes to be paid earlier than would be paid if such limitations were not in effect.

Furthermore, Kaleyra may not be able to generate sufficient taxable income to utilize Kaleyra’s NOLs before they expire. In addition, NOLs incurred in one state generally are not available to offset income earned in a different state and there may be periods during which the use of NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited for state tax purposes, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.

Kaleyra’s global operations and structure subject Kaleyra to potentially adverse tax consequences.

Kaleyra generally conducts Kaleyra global operations through subsidiaries and report Kaleyra’s taxable income in various jurisdictions worldwide based upon Kaleyra’s business operations in those jurisdictions. In particular, Kaleyra’s intercompany relationships are subject to complex transfer pricing regulations administered by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. Also, Kaleyra’s tax expense could be affected depending on the applicability of withholding and other taxes (including withholding and indirect taxes on software licenses and related intercompany transactions) under the tax laws of certain jurisdictions in which Kaleyra has business operations. The relevant revenue and taxing authorities may disagree with positions Kaleyra has taken generally, or Kaleyra’s determinations as to the value of assets sold or acquired or income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a disagreement were to occur, and Kaleyra’s position were not sustained, Kaleyra could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of Kaleyra’s operations.

Certain government agencies in jurisdictions where Kaleyra and its affiliates do business have had an extended focus on issues related to the taxation of multinational companies. In addition, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development is conducting a project focused on base erosion and profit shifting in international structures, which seeks to establish certain international standards for taxing the worldwide income of multinational companies. As a result of these developments, the tax laws of certain countries in which Kaleyra and its affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis, and any such changes could increase

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Kaleyra‘s liabilities for taxes, interest and penalties, and therefore could harm Kaleyra’s business, cash flows, results of operations and financial position.

If Kaleyra is not able to maintain and enhance Kaleyra’s brand and increase market awareness of Kaleyra and its services, then Kaleyra’s business could be harmed.

Kaleyra believes that maintaining and enhancing Kaleyra’s brand identity and increasing market awareness of Kaleyra and its services are critical to achieving widespread acceptance of Kaleyra and its Platforms, as well as to strengthen Kaleyra’s relationships with its existing customers and to Kaleyra’s ability to attract new customers. The successful promotion of Kaleyra’s brand will depend largely on Kaleyra’s continued marketing efforts, Kaleyra’s ability to continue to offer high quality services and Kaleyra’s ability to successfully differentiate Kaleyra’s services from competing products and services. Kaleyra’s brand promotion activities may not be successful or yield increased revenue. In addition, independent industry analysts often provide reviews of Kaleyra’s services and competing products and services, which may significantly influence the perception of Kaleyra’s services in the marketplace. If these reviews are negative or not as strong as reviews of Kaleyra’s competitors’ services, then Kaleyra’s brand may be harmed.

From time to time, Kaleyra’s customers have complained about Kaleyra’s services. If Kaleyra does not handle customer complaints effectively, then Kaleyra’s brand and reputation may suffer, Kaleyra’s customers may lose confidence in Kaleyra and they may reduce or cease their use of Kaleyra’s services. Kaleyra’s success depends, in part, on Kaleyra’s ability to generate positive customer feedback. Complaints or negative publicity about Kaleyra, its services or Platforms could harm Kaleyra’s ability to attract and retain customers.

The promotion of Kaleyra’s brand also requires Kaleyra to make substantial expenditures, and Kaleyra anticipates that these expenditures will increase as Kaleyra’s market becomes more competitive and as Kaleyra expands into new markets. To the extent that these activities increase revenue, this revenue still may not be enough to offset the increased expenses Kaleyra incurs. If Kaleyra does not successfully maintain and enhance its brand, then Kaleyra’s business may not grow, Kaleyra may see its pricing power reduced relative to competitors and Kaleyra may lose customers, all of which could lower Kaleyra’s revenue and harm its business.

Any failure to deliver and maintain high-quality customer support may adversely affect Kaleyra’s relationships with its customers and prospective customers and could adversely affect Kaleyra’s reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.

Many of Kaleyra’s customers depend on Kaleyra’s customer support team to assist them in deploying or using Kaleyra’s services effectively, to help them resolve post-deployment issues quickly and to provide ongoing support. If Kaleyra does not devote sufficient resources or are otherwise unsuccessful in assisting Kaleyra’s customers effectively, it could adversely affect Kaleyra’s ability to retain existing customers and could prevent prospective customers from adopting Kaleyra’s services. Kaleyra may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in demand for customer support. Kaleyra also may be unable to modify the nature, scope and delivery of its customer support to compete with changes in the support services provided by Kaleyra’s competitors. Increased demand for customer support, without corresponding revenue, could increase Kaleyra’s costs and harm its business and operations. Kaleyra’s sales are highly dependent on Kaleyra’s business reputation. Any failure to deliver and maintain high-quality customer support, or a market perception that Kaleyra does not maintain high-quality customer support, could harm Kaleyra’s reputation and business.

Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose Kaleyra to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.

Kaleyra’s agreements with customers and other third parties typically include indemnification or other provisions under which Kaleyra agrees to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, damages caused by Kaleyra to property or persons or other liabilities relating to or arising from Kaleyra’s services or Platforms or other acts or omissions. The term of these contractual provisions often survives termination or expiration of the applicable agreement. Large indemnity payments or damage claims from a contractual breach could harm Kaleyra’s business. Although Kaleyra normally contractually limit its liability with respect to such obligations, Kaleyra may still incur substantial liability related to

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them. Any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could harm Kaleyra’s relationship with that customer and other current and prospective customers and reduce demand for its services.

Kaleyra is subject to litigation in the ordinary course of business, and uninsured judgments or a rise in insurance premiums may adversely affect Kaleyra’s results of operations.

In the ordinary course of business, Kaleyra is subject to various claims and litigation. Any such claims, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention and resources. In accordance with customary practice, Kaleyra maintains insurance against some, but not all, of these potential claims. Kaleyra may elect not to obtain insurance if Kaleyra believes that the cost of available insurance is excessive relative to the risks presented. The levels of insurance Kaleyra maintains may not be adequate to fully cover any and all losses or liabilities. Further, Kaleyra may not be able to maintain insurance at commercially acceptable premium levels or at all. If any significant judgment, claim (or a series of claims) or other event is not fully insured or indemnified against, it could have a material adverse impact on Kaleyra’s business, financial condition and results of operations. There can be no assurance as to the actual amount of these liabilities or the timing thereof. Kaleyra cannot be certain that the outcome of current or future litigation will not harm its business and results of operations.

Defects or errors in Kaleyra’s services could diminish demand for Kaleyra’s services, harm Kaleyra’s business and subject Kaleyra to liability.

Kaleyra’s customers use its services for important aspects of their businesses, and any errors, defects or disruptions to Kaleyra’s services and any other performance problems with Kaleyra’s services could damage its customers’ businesses and, in turn, hurt Kaleyra’s brand and reputation. Kaleyra provides regular updates to Kaleyra’s services, which have in the past contained, and may in the future contain, undetected errors, failures, vulnerabilities and bugs when first introduced or released. Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in Kaleyra’s services could result in negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of Kaleyra’s Platforms, loss of competitive position, lower customer retention or claims by customers for losses sustained by them. In such an event, Kaleyra may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend additional resources in order to help correct the problem. In addition, Kaleyra may not carry insurance sufficient to compensate Kaleyra for any losses that may result from claims arising from defects or disruptions in Kaleyra’s services. As a result, Kaleyra’s brand and reputation could be harmed.

If Kaleyra does not file and maintain a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants, holders will only be able to exercise such warrants on a “cashless basis.”

If Kaleyra does not maintain a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants at the time that holders wish to exercise such warrants, they will only be able to exercise them on a “cashless basis” provided that an exemption from registration is available. As a result, the number of shares of common stock that holders will receive upon exercise of the warrants will be fewer than it would have been had such holder exercised its warrant for cash. Further, if an exemption from registration is not available, holders would not be able to exercise on a cashless basis and would only be able to exercise their warrants for cash if a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants is available. Under the terms of the warrant agreement, Kaleyra has agreed to use its best efforts to meet these conditions and to maintain a current and effective prospectus relating to the common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants until the expiration of the warrants. However, Kaleyra cannot make any assurances that it will be able to do so. If Kaleyra is unable to do so, the potential “upside” of the holder’s investment in Kaleyra may be reduced or the warrants may expire worthless.

There is no guarantee that the warrants will be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of warrants may be amended.

The exercise price for the warrants is $11.50 per share of common stock. There is no guarantee that the public warrants will continue to be in the money prior to their expiration, and as such, the warrants may expire worthless.

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In addition, the warrants were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement with Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants to make any other change. Accordingly, Kaleyra may amend the terms of the warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment. Although Kaleyra’s ability to amend the terms of the warrants with the consent of at least 65% of the then outstanding public warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares and their respective affiliates and associates have of common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.

If Kaleyra fails to introduce or acquire new products or services that achieve broad market acceptance on a timely basis, or if its products or services are not adopted as expected, Kaleyra will not be able to compete effectively.

Kaleyra operates in a highly competitive, quickly changing environment, and Kaleyra’s future success depends on its ability to develop or acquire, and introduce new products and services that achieve broad market acceptance. Kaleyra’s ability to successfully introduce and market new products is unproven. Because Kaleyra has a limited operating history and the market for its products, including newly acquired or developed products, is rapidly evolving, it is difficult to predict Kaleyra’s operating results, particularly with respect to any new products that it may introduce. Kaleyra’s future success will depend in large part upon its ability to identify demand trends in the market in which it will operate and quickly develop or acquire, and design, manufacture and sell, products and services that satisfy these demands in a cost-effective manner.

In order to differentiate Kaleyra’s products and services from competitors’ products, Kaleyra will need to increase focus and capital investment in research and development, including software development. If any products currently sold by, and services offered by, Kaleyra do not continue, or if Kaleyra’s new products or services fail to achieve widespread market acceptance, or if Kaleyra is unsuccessful in capitalizing on opportunities in the market in which Kaleyra operates, our future growth may be slowed and its business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Successfully predicting demand trends is difficult, and it is very difficult to predict the effect that introducing a new product or service will have on existing product or service sales. It is possible that Kaleyra may not be successful with its new products and services, and as a result Kaleyra’s future growth may be slowed and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Also, Kaleyra may not be able to respond effectively to new product or service announcements by competitors by quickly introducing competitive products and services.

In addition, Kaleyra may acquire companies and technologies in the future. In these circumstances, Kaleyra may not be able to successfully manage integration of the new product and service lines with our existing suite of products and services. If Kaleyra is unable to effectively and successfully further develop these new product and service lines, Kaleyra may not be able to increase or maintain sales (as compared to sales of Kaleyra on a standalone basis), and our gross margin (as compared to sales of Kaleyra on a standalone basis) may be adversely affected.

Furthermore, the success of Kaleyra’s new products will depend on several factors, including, but not limited to, market demand costs, timely completion and introduction of these products, prompt resolution of any defects or bugs in these products, Kaleyra’s ability to support these products, differentiation of new products from those of the Kaleyra’s competitors, market acceptance of these products, delays and quality issues in releasing new products and services. The occurrence of one or more of the foregoing factors may result in lower quarterly revenue than expected, and Kaleyra may in the future experience product or service introductions that fall short of its projected rates of market adoption.

If Kaleyra’s products fail to achieve and sustain sufficient market acceptance, Kaleyra’s revenue will be adversely affected.

Kaleyra’s success will depend on its ability to develop and market products that are recognized and accepted as reliable, enabling and cost-effective. Some potential customers of Kaleyra may already use products similar to what Kaleyra currently offers and similar to what Kaleyra may offer in the future and may be reluctant to replace

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those products with what Kaleyra currently offers or which Kaleyra may offer in the future. Market acceptance of Kaleyra’s products and technology will depend on many factors, including Kaleyra’s ability to convince potential customers that Kaleyra’s products and technology are an attractive alternative to existing products and technology. Prior to adopting Kaleyra’s products and technology, some potential customers may need to devote time and effort to testing and validating Kaleyra’s systems. Any failure of Kaleyra’s systems to meet these customer benchmarks could result in potential customers choosing to retain their existing systems or to purchase systems other than Kaleyra’s.

If Kaleyra’s performance does not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of its securities may decline.

If Kaleyra’s performance does not meet the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the market price of its securities may decline. In addition, fluctuations in the price of Kaleyra’s securities could contribute to the loss of all or part of your investment. The trading price of Kaleyra’s securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond Kaleyra’s control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in Kaleyra’s securities and these securities may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of Kaleyra’s securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of Kaleyra’s securities may include:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in Kaleyra’s quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to Kaleyra;

 

changes in the market’s expectations about Kaleyra’s operating results;

 

success of competitors;

 

Kaleyra’s operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

 

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Kaleyra or the market in general;

 

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to Kaleyra’s;

 

Kaleyra’s ability to market new and enhanced services and products on a timely basis;

 

changes in laws and regulations affecting Kaleyra’s business;

 

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving Kaleyra;

 

changes in Kaleyra’s capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

 

the volume of shares of Kaleyra’s securities available for public sale;

 

any major change in the Board of Directors (the “Board”) or management;

 

sales of substantial amounts of common stock by Kaleyra’s directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

 

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of Kaleyra’s securities irrespective of its operating performance. The stock market in general and the NYSE have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of Kaleyra’s securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to Kaleyra could depress its stock price regardless of its business, prospects,

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financial condition or results of operations. A decline in the market price of Kaleyra’s securities also could adversely affect its ability to issue additional securities and its ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about Kaleyra, its business, or its market, or if they change their recommendations regarding its securities adversely, the price and trading volume of its securities could decline.

The trading market for Kaleyra’s securities will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about Kaleyra, its business, its market, or its competitors. If any of the analysts who currently or in the future may cover Kaleyra, change their recommendation regarding its stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about Kaleyra’s competitors, the price of its securities would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover Kaleyra were to cease coverage of Kaleyra or fail to regularly publish reports on it, Kaleyra could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause its stock price or trading volume to decline.

There may be a limited public market for the shares of common stock of Kaleyra, and the ability of the stockholders of Kaleyra to dispose of their common stock may be limited.

Kaleyra’s common stock is traded on the NYSE. Kaleyra cannot foresee the degree of liquidity that will be associated with its common stock. A holder of the common stock may not be able to liquidate his, her or its investment in a short time period or at the market prices that currently exist at the time the holder decides to sell. The market price for the common stock may fluctuate in the future, and such volatility may bear no relation to Kaleyra’s performance.

A market for Kaleyra’s securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of its securities.

The price of Kaleyra’s securities may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to Kaleyra and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for Kaleyra’s securities may never develop or, if developed, it may not be sustained. In addition, the price of Kaleyra’s securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, Kaleyra’s general business condition and the release of its financial reports. Additionally, if Kaleyra’s securities become delisted from the NYSE for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of Kaleyra’s securities may be more limited than if its securities were quoted or listed on the NYSE or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.

There can be no assurance that Kaleyra will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of the NYSE and the NYSE American.

Kaleyra’s common stock is currently listed on the NYSE and its warrants on the NYSE American. If the NYSE or NYSE American delists Kaleyra’s securities from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, Kaleyra and its stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

 

a limited availability of market quotations for Kaleyra’s securities;

 

a determination that the common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in its common stock to adhere to more stringent rules, possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for the common stock;

 

a limited amount of analyst coverage; and

 

a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

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Kaleyra qualifies as an emerging growth company, and Kaleyra’s decision to comply with reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

Kaleyra is an “emerging growth company,” and, for as long as Kaleyra continues to be an emerging growth company, Kaleyra currently intends to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to have its independent registered public accounting firm audit Kaleyra’s internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in its registration statements, periodic reports and proxy statements (including the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part) and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Kaleyra will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of: (i) the end of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the IPO; (ii) the first fiscal year after its annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more; (iii) the date on which Kaleyra has, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; or (iv) the end of any fiscal year in which the market value of its common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $700 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year.

Kaleyra cannot predict whether investors will find its common stock less attractive if Kaleyra chooses to rely on these exemptions while Kaleyra is an emerging growth company. If some investors find its common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for its common stock and the price of its common stock may be more volatile.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. Kaleyra has availed itself of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, Kaleyra may not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2. Properties.

Kaleyra leases 18 properties, with its headquarters in Milan, Italy. Kaleyra maintains a global footprint with additional leased facilities located in Bengaluru, India; Chennai, India; Delhi, India; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Kochi, India; Kolkata, India; London, United Kingdom; Los Angeles, California; Mexico City, Mexico; Mumbai, India; Munich, Germany; New York, New York, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and Vienna, Virginia. Kaleyra believes that its current facilities are adequate to meet its ongoing needs and that, if it requires adjusted or additional space, it will be able to obtain additional facilities on commercially reasonable terms, or further consolidate facilities. Going forward, Kaleyra will continue to assess its facilities requirements and make appropriate adjustments as needed and dictated by the business.

Kaleyra operates 32 data centers, including cloud platforms operated by Amazon Web Services, and Kaleyra maintains private clouds on behalf of its customers. The Kaleyra private cloud devices are custom-built hardware running Kaleyra’s Platforms and, thus, can be deployed virtually anywhere. Kaleyra currently runs these private cloud devices out of its headquarters in Milan, Italy.

From time to time, Kaleyra may be involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of its operations in the normal course of business. Kaleyra is not currently involved in any material legal proceedings as a defendant.

On October 17, 2018, Kaleyra filed a claim against Vodafone Italia S.p.A. (“Vodafone”) before the Court of Milan seeking compensation in the amount of €6.1 million ($6.9 million at the December 31, 2021 exchange rate) for all the damages suffered as a consequence of the illicit and anticompetitive conduct of Vodafone, as previously determined by the Italian Antitrust Authority (namely, Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato or AGCM)

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in their decisions issued on December 13, 2017; Vodafone has appealed that sanctioning resolution before the Italian Regional Administrative Court.

The deadline for filing a counterclaim by Vodafone has passed and according to Italian Law, Vodafone is no longer entitled to file a counterclaim against Kaleyra in these proceedings. Both Kaleyra and Vodafone have filed their final pleadings on October 1, 2019 and October 21, 2019.

The Court of Milan has decided to suspend the procedure, through order no. 1570 on May 18, 2020. The decision of the Court of Milan is based on procedural reasons only (concerning the unprecedented definition of the relationship between administrative and civil proceedings in the case at hand) and does not analyze or take into any consideration the merits of the action brought by Kaleyra. The procedural suspension ordered by the Court of Milan shall last until the appeal brought by Vodafone before the Italian Regional Administrative Court against the decision of the Italian Antitrust Authority is concluded with a definitive judgment. Accordingly, following the order of suspension issued by the Civil Court of Milan, on August 10, 2020, Kaleyra filed a request to speed up the scheduling of the hearing in relation to the pending appeal before the Italian Regional Administrative Court brought by Vodafone Italia. The Court upheld Kaleyra’s request and the hearing took place on February 24, 2021. Accordingly, the parties submitted their final defenses. On September 15, 2021, the Administrative Court issued its first instance decision that upheld Vodafone’s appeal and annulled the sanctioning resolution issued by the Italian Competition Authority (the “ICA”) (decision no. 9803/2021). On December 10, 2021, the ICA filed its appeal to the second instance Court (Council of State) against the Administrative Court first instance decision no. 9803/2021 asking to overrule it. Both Vodafone and Kaleyra submitted their appearances in the judicial proceeding, but no hearing has been scheduled yet by the Council of State. Until a final decision is reached by the Council of State there will be no effect on the civil proceeding that will therefore remain suspended.

The outcome of such action cannot be determined at this time. Therefore, no recognition of these actions has been made in the consolidated financial statements of the Company.

On April 16, 2019, Kaleyra filed a claim against Telecom Italia S.p.A. (“Telecom”) and Telecom Italia Sparkle S.p.A. (“Sparkle”, jointly with Telecom “Defendants”) before the Court of Milan seeking compensation in the amount of €8.3 million ($10.2 million at the December 31, 2020 exchange rate) for damages suffered after the illicit conduct of both counterparts, determined by the Italian Antitrust Authority in the decision issued on December 13, 2017.

At the first hearing before the Court of Milan held for the appearance of the parties on December 11, 2019, the judge reserved the decision on the possible suspension of the case in consideration of the appeal brought by Telecom Italia S.p.A and Telecom Italia Sparkle S.p.A. against the Italian Antitrust Authority’s decision of December 13, 2017 before the Regional Administrative Court, which is currently pending.

By order issued on December 14, 2019, the judge released his reserve and referred the issue concerning the relation between the assessment of the pending administrative case and the one to be carried out in the civil case to a panel composed of three judges. The case was therefore adjourned for a hearing on April 29, 2020 where the parties had to file their final pleadings.

On April 9, 2020, following the measures taken by the Italian legislator for the Covid-19 pandemic, the above-mentioned hearing was postponed to and then held on October 7, 2020. At the hearing of October 7, 2020, the parties exposed their closing arguments and the decision on the preliminary question as to the suspension of the civil proceedings has been reserved to a panel composed of three judges. The parties also submitted written observations concerning the preliminary question.

On January 7, 2021, the Court issued an order by which the civil proceedings have been suspended until the decision in the pending administrative case – which was deemed to be prejudicial to the civil one – becomes final (i.e., it is no longer subject to appeal). The order was communicated to the parties via certified electronic mail on January 11, 2021.

In light of the average duration of cases before the Italian Administrative Courts and the Defendants’ interest in both having the Italian Competition Authority’s decision annulled and procrastinating the administrative case (on which the civil proceedings now depend pursuant to the above-mentioned order) for dilatory purposes, the civil case is unlikely to proceed in the short term. In order to speed up the administrative proceedings (and thus the civil case), on February 9, 2021, Kaleyra filed an application with the Administrative Court of Latium requesting that the hearing on the merits of the case be held as soon as possible (“istanza di prelievo”). On September 23, 2021, the

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Defendants filed with the Administrative Court of Latium their “istanza di prelievo” aimed at requesting a prompt schedule of the hearing on the merits of the case. The request is motivated taking into consideration, inter alia, the decision, dated September 15, 2021, by which – in a parallel case – the same Administrative Court annulled the decision by which the Italian Competition Authority (decision no. 9803/2021) ascertained that Vodafone Italia S.p.A. committed an abuse of a dominant position in violation of art. 102 TFEU for margin squeeze (i.e., for behaviors similar to those attributed to the Defendants in the decision). The hearing has been scheduled on March 23, 2022.

Also, in light of the above, the outcome of Kaleyra’s civil action nor its duration is predictable at this time.

The outcome of such civil action cannot be determined at this time. Therefore, no recognition of these actions has been made in the consolidated financial statements of the Company.

In addition to the above, Kaleyra has appealed the resolutions issued by the Italian Communications Authority (namely, Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni or AGCom) concerning their request for the annual fee to AGCom for years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020.

The first instance proceeding against AGCom’s resolutions for the 2016 contribution was successful for Kaleyra and the Italian Regional Administrative Court annulled the resolutions Kaleyra had appealed (judgement no. 2161/2019). However, AGCom filed its second instance appeal before the Council of State seeking the overruling of the Court’s decision. The appeal has been regularly discussed at the hearing of September 17, 2020 and the Council of State issued its decision number 6175/2020 on October 13, 2020, overruling in part the Regional Court decision. AGCom will have to recalculate the annual contribution due from Kaleyra for year 2016. However, the annual contribution is not considered material to Kaleyra’s consolidated financial statements.

For the annual contribution to AGCom relating the years 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 the legal proceedings are currently pending before the Italian Regional Administrative Court and no hearing has been scheduled yet. However, the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) has already delivered its decision on the request for a preliminary ruling submitted by the Council of State on the relevant EU law (case C-399/18). Such decision was delivered on April 29, 2020, in accordance with a simplified procedure due to the previous issuance by the ECJ of a number of judgements on the matter.

Finally, Kaleyra took part in two appeals brought before the Regional Administrative Court of Lazio (TAR Lazio) by, respectively, an Association of Content Service Providers (“CSP”) for Value Added Services on mobile network (“VAS”), and one singular CSP, against a specific resolution of the Italian Communications Authority regarding the rules for applying a barring mechanism on the SIM of the final users of VAS (resolution no. 10/21/CONS). Kaleyra filed its interventions in both the judicial proceedings to support the measures issued by AGCom.

Specifically, following the hearing before TAR Lazio that took place on March 17, 2021, the Court has issued two orders (no. 1748 and no. 1751, dated March 18, 2021) that rejected the precautionary measures requested by both the plaintiffs, upholding the position represented by Kaleyra to support the legitimacy of the abovementioned resolution. Following the definition of the precautionary phase, both appeals are likely to be discussed on the merits in the next months. As of today, TAR Lazio has not scheduled any further hearing, hence there is no imminent deadline with regard to those judicial proceedings. For the sake of completeness, the final judgments of TAR Lazio on the two appeals above shall not result in any economic direct impact on Kaleyra.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

None.

52


PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

(a) Market Information

Kaleyra’s common stock and warrants began trading on the NYSE American under the symbols “KLR” and “KLR WS”, on November 26, 2019, and December 2, 2019, respectively, subject to ongoing review of Kaleyra’s satisfaction of all listing criteria post-Business Combination. Effective August 31, 2021, the common stock of the Company ceased trading on the NYSE American and commenced trading on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “KLR”. Kaleyra’s warrants continue to trade on the NYSE American under the symbol “KLR WS”.

(b) Holders

As of December 31, 2021, there were thirty-three holders of record of our common stock and seven holders of record of our warrants.

(c) Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our shares of common stock to date and do not intend to pay cash dividends. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition of the Company. The payment of any dividends will be within the discretion of our then Board. It is the present intention of our Board to retain all earnings, if any, for use in our business operations and, accordingly, our Board does not anticipate declaring any dividends in the foreseeable future.

(d) Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table reflects information for our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan as of December 31, 2021.

 

 

 

(a)

 

 

(b)

 

 

(c)

 

Plan Category

 

Number of

securities to be

issued upon

vesting of

Restricted Stock

Units

 

 

Weighted-

average

exercise price of

outstanding

options,

warrants,

and rights

 

 

Number of

securities

remaining

available

for future

issuance

under equity

compensation

plan (excluding

securities

reflected in

column(a))

 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders*

 

 

4,374,021

 

 

$

0.00

 

 

 

3,340,801

 

 

*

The terms of our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan provide for an annual increase in the number of shares of our common stock authorized under the plan, effective as of the first day of each subsequent fiscal year, pursuant to the terms and conditions underlined in the plan. On January 1, 2022, the number of additional shares available for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan was automatically increased by 2,101,681 shares.

53


Item 6. Selected Financial Data.

The following selected financial data are qualified in their entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information contained in the consolidated financial statements, the notes thereto and the information set forth in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020